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Argentine legislative election, 1918

Home | Argentine legislative election, 1918

The Argentine legislative elections of 1918 were held on 3 March. Voters chose their legislators and numerous governors, and with a turnout of 56 how to make meat tenderizer at home.4%, it produced the following results:

(*): The UCR total excludes three Senators barred until 1922.
(**): The two PLSL Senators were barred until 1923.

President Hipólito Yrigoyen, elected in 1916 in the nation’s first, free elections, responded (like numerous other administrations before his) to opposition with less than democratic means: the placing of provincial governments under federal intervention. His first target, Marcelino Ugarte, was the Conservative Governor of Buenos Aires Province (home to over one in three Argentines, and to most of the source of the nation’s growing wealth, the Pampas); Ugarte’s removal on April 24, 1917, would be followed by six others by the time the first Yrigoyen-era mid-term elections arrived a year later.

The President’s lack of support in Congress for these moves (which, on the Ugarte issue, lost a floor vote by 36 to 53), extended to other areas, including foreign policy. Congress rejected Yrigoyen’s policy of neutrality, and approved a series of measures in support of the Allied Powers; indeed, the only significant presidential bill supported by Congress during the 1916-18 term was a modest, 5 percent export tariff enacted to finance needed rural public works. Rifts developed within the UCR, itself – notably in the important Santa Fe Province, where Governor Rodolfo Lehmann formed the Dissident UCR in protest over the President’s policy over removing governors.

Focused on the crucial Buenos Aires Province gubernatorial race, the UCR nominated one of their most prominent supporters from among the landed gentry, José Camilo Crotto. Crotto, a UCR activist from its earliest days in the 1890s, was a reformist who shared Yrigoyen’s support for public works, farm credit, and de-monopolization of the province’s vast rail network. The economy, burdened by a shortage of capital and imported goods as a result of World War I, had begun to recover strongly by late 1917. This improvement took place despite an extensive strike in the critical rail transport sector, and turned the electoral tide in Yrigoyen’s favor ahead of the March 1918 polls.

Ultimately, the UCR repeated its performance in the 1916 legislative races, winning nearly half the vote, and gaining 12 seats. The results left them 5 short of an absolute majority; but made temporary alliances feasible, and thus guaranteed the President’s legislative agenda. Buenos Aires Province, the bulwark of conservative opposition, would have its first elected UCR governor with Crotto’s defeat of Conservative candidate Alfredo Echagüe by 114,000 to 68,000 electric shavers toronto, as well as an ample majority in the provincial legislature. The UCR won in nearly every province in which elections were held in 1918, as well as in the City of Buenos Aires, where the formerly dominant Socialists (saddled by a break in party ranks) secured but 3 of the 9 seats at stake. Yrigoyen’s most glaring defeat, in turn, came from Santa Fe, where Governor Lehmann’s Dissident UCR won 4 of the 6 seats at stake.

Elections to the Senate, held in April, 1919, significantly enhanced the UCR’s presence in the body, where opposition to Yrigoyen’s populist agenda had been strongest. The party won 7 of the 10 seats at stake, including the crucial City of Buenos Aires seat (the only one not elected by provincial legislatures, until 2001), where Congressman Vicente Gallo, a veteran of the UCR’s struggle for universal (male) suffrage from the 1890s, defeated the Socialists; Gallo, a founding member of the right-wing Argentine Patriotic League, benefited from a Red Scare that developed in the city during January’s “Tragic Week” riots. Five of these new Senators thermos flask, however, including three from the UCR itself, and both San Luis Province Senators, were barred from taking their seats by President Yrigoyen’s intervention decrees. They joined the numerous Governors so removed, and portended a deep schism in the party.

Joli OS

Home | Joli OS

Joli OS er en tidligere fransk Linux-distribusjon som var basert på Ubuntu. Frem til versjon 1.2 ble den også kalt Jolicloud.

Første versjon ble lansert i 2009. Siste versjon var 1.2 fra 9. mars 2011. Den 22. november 2013 besluttet utviklere seg for å stanse utviklingen av Joli OS i slutten av 2013.

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Maize dwarf mosaic virus

Home | Maize dwarf mosaic virus

MDMV-A
MDMV-D
MDMV-E
MDMV-F

Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae. Depending on the corn plant’s growth stage, the virus can have severe implications to the corn plant’s development which can also result in economic consequences to the producer of the crop.

Maize (Zea mays) is a major cereal crop collapsible water bottle; it is third behind rice and wheat in production. An average of 380 million tons are produced annually by 53 countries. Maize is the most widely grown crop ranging from tropical areas with altitudes over 3000 m to temperate areas extending as far north as the 65th latitude. MDMV is the most serious virus of sweet corn.

If corn plants are infected with MDMV, ear formation and development are slowed leading to grain yield loss. The damage from MDMV can cause the halting of ear formation and development, ultimately leading to the production of barren ears and direct yield loss. There can be losses of up to 42% on early planted field corn. If corn is planted late MDMV can cause 75% or more loss on inbred and hybrid varieties. The number of ears per plant is reduced by MDMV infection and the fresh weight of these ears can be reduced by 30%.

MDMV is caused by various strains. There are 5 strains A, C, D, E, and F. They differ in biological, serological, and nucleotide sequences. The vector for MDMV transmission is aphids.

There are 15 aphid species that can non-persistently transmit MDMV. The aphids are mainly members of the Poaceae family. MDMV overwinters in alternate hosts. These hosts range is sorghum, maize, and Johnson grass. Symptoms appear six weeks after aphids feed and transmit the virus. The aphid acquires the virus within seconds of feeding on an infected plant, either maize, Johnson grass, or sorghum. There is no latent period for transmission to new host plants. After acquiring MDMV an aphid is able to transmit the virus within 15–30 minutes. Aphids do not retain MDMV after molting sweater lint.

The virus can also be spread through the seed or mechanically by leaf rubbing of Johnson grass and sorghum. MDMV in the field is not typically transmitted by seed or mechanically, it is more prevalent in greenhouses. Depending on the hybrid, most maize plants will show higher rates of disease when infected earlier in the growing stage. The pathogen itself is a flexuous, rod-shaped virus measuring 12 x 750 nm good goalie gloves. There are antiserum kits that can confirm the viruses identity.

There is resistance to MDMV. Maize plants can have up to 5 resistance genes in their genetic make up. There are commercially available hybrids that provide good resistance. The major gene for resistance is called mdm1 and it is found on chromosome 6. Mdm1 was identified in Pa405, an inbred line. This chromosomal region of mdm1 is also where resistance genes to two other phtyviridae viruses are located. The resistance conferred by mdm1 can be greatly altered with genetic, environmental, and developmental factors.

At the University of Wisconsin – Madison there are breeding trials to help create new varieties that are resistant to MDMV.

MDMV prefers warm to average temperatures. Johnson grass infected with MDMV in the surrounding environment can increase the disease on maize. MDMV is a cultivated virus that mainly occurs in the United States and Australia. MDMV does not overwinter in Minnesota and Wisconsin, which makes the source of inoculum in these northern states unclear. During infection after periods of cool night temperatures, about 60 °F, the plants may exhibit signs of the disease such as blotches or streaks of red.

Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus is spread by seed, by infected leaves rubbing on non-infected leaves and perhaps most commonly, via aphids (Lipps & Mills, n.d.). These aphids become carriers after they feed on plants such as Johnson grass, corn or sorghum, or other grass species that are infected with MDMV. Broadleaf plants do not become infected with MDMV (The CIMMYT Maize Program). Aphids transmit Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus disease effectively fifteen to thirty minutes after feeding on infected plants when by spreading the virus to the susceptible plants after they have flown or are blown onto a nearby corn crop and will start to feed (“Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus,” n.d.).

When looking for symptoms of MDMV in corn, one must also be aware of the plant’s growth stage as symptoms may affect the plant differently at various stages. Young leaves, may experience chlorotic spotting which may eventually turn into a mosaic or mottle pattern (“Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus,” n.d.). Later in the growing season, the mosaic pattern may bleed into a general yellowing of the leaf and eventually areas of red streaks or blotches may appear if night time temperatures are consistently around 60 degrees Fahrenheit (Lipps & Mills, n.d.). Plants affected later in their reproductive cycle may experience a slowing in ear development (“Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus,” n.d.), while some plants may even become barren (Lipps & Mills, n.d thermos flask.). It is not uncommon for plants to have shortened upper internodes or an increase in tiller number (“Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus,” n.d.).

Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus can be managed in several ways. One way is the removal of the local population of Johnson grass as this can harbor the disease. It is best if all producers (farmers) in the area participate in this practice or the disease can remain in sporadic plant populations and be spread in the ways described above (Lipps & Mills, n.d.). Another way to help avoid MDMV is by selecting corn varieties that are tolerant of the virus and by planting corn crops earlier in the season to help seedlings avoid key aphid population times (Lipps & Mills, n.d.).

Hilly Kristal

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Hillel „Hilly“ Kristal (* 23. September 1931 in Manhattan, New York City; † 28. August 2007 ebenda) war ein US-amerikanischer Club-Besitzer und Musiker. Ihm gehörte der legendäre New Yorker Club CBGB, der ab 1974 zur Keimzelle des US-amerikanischen Punk und New Wave wurde.

Hillel Kristal – benannt nach dem historischen Rabbiner Hillel – wurde 1931 in Manhattan in der Nachfolge jüdisch-russischer US-Immigranten geboren. Er zog jedoch bereits im Säuglingsalter mit seiner Familie in das zu dieser Zeit ländlich geprägte Hightstown in New Jersey um, auch bekannt als Jersey Homestead, ein jüdisches Siedlungsprojekt. Beginnend mit seiner Einschulung lernte er Violine zu spielen. Schon in jungen Jahren studierte er Musik und besuchte schließlich die Settlement Music School in Philadelphia. Außerdem war er eine Zeit lang bei den Marines, wo er unter anderem als DJ tätig war. Im Alter von achtzehn Jahren zog er nach New York thermos flask, wo er in den 1950er- und 1960er-Jahren bei einer Reihe von Bands mitspielte und als Sänger sein Geld verdiente. Unter anderem sind einige Auftritte in der Radio City Music Hall verzeichnet. Später wurde er Manager des legendären Jazz-Clubs Village Vanguard, wo er unter anderem einen Auftritt von Miles Davis organisierte.

1970 eröffnete Kristal in der Straße Bowery in Downtown Manhattan eine Bar, die er Hilly’s on the Bowery nannte. 1973 änderte er den Namen um in CBGB & OMFUG, eine Abkürzung (Akronym) für die Musikstile water in bottle, die er dort gespielt sehen wollte: „Country, Bluegrass, Blues and Other Music For Uplifting Gormandizers“. Der Club wurde bekannt als Keimzelle des Punk und der New Wave und brachte Künstler wie die Ramones, Talking Heads, Patti Smith fabric lint, Television und Blondie hervor.

Im Oktober 2006 schloss der Club, nachdem die Miete sehr stark erhöht werden sollte. Hier traten im Lauf der Jahre viele bekannte Musiker auf, und das CBGB blieb bis zu seiner Schließung unter Musikfans aus aller Welt und Touristen sehr populär, obwohl es seine kulturelle Relevanz als Keimzelle innovativer Musik schon Anfang der 1980er-Jahre verloren hatte. Nach der Schließung dachte Kristal eine Zeit lang darüber nach, den Club in Las Vegas wiederzueröffnen.

Kristal starb am 28. August 2007 an Lungenkrebs. Er hinterließ zwei Kinder: Mark Dana Kristal und Lisa Kristal Burgman.

Johann Wilhelm Meigen

Home | Johann Wilhelm Meigen

Johann Wilhelm Meigen (* 3. Mai 1764 in Solingen; † 11. Juli 1845 in Stolberg (Rhld.)) war ein deutscher Entomologe.

Seine Eltern waren Johann Clemens Meigen (1732–1802) und dessen Ehefrau Sibylla Margaretha Bick (1732–1814). Diese betrieben mit bescheidenen Mitteln einen Krämerladen in Solingen. Meigen wurde als fünftes von acht Kindern geboren.

Er interessierte sich bereits in jungen Jahren für die Natur und begann im Alter von zehn Jahren Schmetterlinge zu sammeln. Eine erste Ausbildung erhielt er in Mathematik und vor allem in Französisch. In Aachen ging er ab 1784 bei dem Händler Pelzer in die Lehre.

Ein Vetter von ihm, der Wollhändler Johann Matthias Baumhauer (1759–1818), war leidenschaftlicher Insektenforscher und besaß eine ansehnliche Sammlung, insbesondere von Schmetterlingen. Bald half ihm der junge Meigen bei der Betreuung seiner Sammlung, die etwa 1.200 Stücke umfasste. Er begann, wissenschaftlicher vorzugehen und es gelang ihm, für die Bestimmung der Arten einige Entomologiewerke zu besorgen, unter anderem von Johan Christian Fabricius (1745–1808). Seine ersten wissenschaftlichen Beobachtungen machte er insbesondere bei der Flügeläderung der Fliegen und stellte damit die von Linné definierten Gattungen in Frage, ohne zu wissen, dass Thaddeus William Harris (1795–1856) in Großbritannien und Louis Jurine (1749–1819) in Genf zu ähnlichen Schlussfolgerungen kamen. Um die Flügel der Zweiflügler besser untersuchen zu können, erwarb er auf einer Messe in Leiden ein Mikroskop mit 20-facher Vergrößerung.

Im Herbst 1786 starb der Organist von Solingen. Dieses Amt wurde Meigen angeboten, da auch das Unterrichten der französischen Sprache dazugehörte. Er nahm die Stellung an, die neben anderen Vorteilen auch den Aufenthalt in der Nähe seiner Familie erlaubte. 1792 begann er mit Zeichenstudien, während er weiterhin in Schulen der Aachener Umgebung Französisch lehrte. Dabei unterrichtete Meigen vornehmlich die Kinder der zahlungskräftigen Kupfermeister in Stolberg, wo er von 1796 bis zu seinem Tode tätig war. Privatunterricht erteilte er in den Fächern Zeichnen, Geographie, Weltgeschichte und Musik (Klavierspiel).

1801 begegnete er Bernard Germain Lacépède (1756–1825), der zum Besuch der Brauereien nach Stolberg gekommen war. Meigen zeigte ihm seine Zweiflüglerzeichnungen. 1802 wurde er von Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger (1775–1813) und Johann Centurius von Hoffmannsegg (1766–1849) zum Besuch nach Aachen eingeladen, wo sie als Kurgäste weilten thermos flask. Es ist Illiger zu verdanken, dass die ersten Arbeiten von Meigen erscheinen konnten. Im selben Jahr entdeckte Fabricius beim Besuch in Paris Meigens Arbeiten und ersuchte ihn um ein Treffen, das dann in Stolberg stattfand. Fabricius warf Meigen vor, keine Klassifikationsmethode anzuwenden, die sich nur auf einen bestimmten Körperteil gründet glass lined water bottle, sondern jeweils nach den Erfordernissen wechselte.

Das Jahr 1808 war wegen der drastisch sinkenden Zahl von Französisch-Schülern schwierig. Meigen erhielt darauf einen Posten als Sekretär bei der Handelskammer Stolberg. 1812 wurde er von der französischen Regierung in der Aachener Verwaltung angestellt. Meigen erstellte topographische Karten für das Département de la Roer, die Bürgermeisterei Stolberg sowie eine Übersichtskarte und elf Kreiskarten für den Bezirk Köln. Auch die Zeit von 1816 bis 1817 war für Meigen sehr schwierig, da er nach dem Verlust der meisten Unterrichtsmöglichkeiten große Probleme hatte, seine Familie zu ernähren, die sieben Kinder umfasste.

Die Könige Preußens, Dänemarks und Württembergs und der Kaiser Österreichs beauftragten ihn schließlich, eine Neuauflage seiner Veröffentlichung von 1804 herauszugeben. Dafür vertraute man ihm die Sammlungen der Museen Wiens und Berlins an (wo die Sammlung Hoffmannseggs aufbewahrt wird), sowie die von Peter Simon Pallas (1741–1811). 1818 veröffentlichte er den ersten Band einer Insekten-Fauna: Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten Europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten, dem sechs weitere nachfolgten, der letzte erschien 1838.

Baumhauers Witwe beauftragte ihn 1818, dessen Sammlung von wenigstens 50 necklaces for women.000 Stücken zu bestimmen, die aus Deutschland, Frankreich, den Pyrenäen, den Alpen und Norditalien stammten. Nach dieser Arbeit wurde die Sammlung für 1.100 holländische Gulden an die Museen von Leiden und von Lüttich verkauft. Auch in die Sammlung des inzwischen verstorbenen Fabricius durfte er Ordnung bringen, wofür er 1823 von Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann (1770–1840) nach Hamburg eingeladen wurde. Bei seinem anschließenden Besuch in Schweden und Dänemark entstanden mehr als 600 Naturzeichnungen.

1822/23 veröffentlichte Meigen eine Serie astronomischer Karten, wie “Der gestirnte Himmel oder Beschreibung aller in Europa sichtbaren Sternbilder”, einen Himmels-Atlas aus 16 Tafeln und einem Hilfsbuch. Kurz vor seinem Tod wurde ihm am 3. Mai 1845 für seine Arbeiten zu den Zweiflüglern die Ehrendoktorwürde der Philosophischen Fakultät der Friedrich-Wilhelm Universität Bonn verliehen.

Er heiratete 1804 Adelhaid Mänß (1787–1883) die Tochter des Faßbinders Peter Mänß (1752–1827) aus Wanheim (heute Teil von Duisburg). Das Paar hatte 8 Söhne und 5 Töchter.

Rivers of America (Disney)

Home | Rivers of America (Disney)

The Rivers of America is the name of the artificial river found in the Frontierland areas of Disneyland-style Disney theme parks around the world. The first river was built in Disneyland when the park opened in 1955. It surrounds Tom Sawyer Island, which can be reached by rafts traveling from the Frontierland mainland. Additionally, there are other water-based vehicles which are found on the river. The sights along the Rivers include a Native American tribe, a burning cabin (though the cabin at Disneyland hasn’t been burning for years), and various audio-animatronic wildlife.

As other magic kingdom-style parks were built, similar versions were included.

Several steamboat and ship replicas sail the many Rivers.

At Disneyland Park in Anaheim, the river passes through Frontierland, New Orleans Square and Critter Country.

The Rivers of America existed since Disneyland opened in July 17, 1955, opening with the Mark Twain Riverboat. However, the island that the river surrounds was left almost completely bare. The Mike Fink Keel Boats opened in December of that year.

In 1956, the river saw the opening of the Indian War Canoes (now Davy Crockett Explorer Canoes), as well as the Tom Sawyer Island area on the center island poland football shirt, newly accessible by raft.

The Sailing Ship Columbia was introduced in 1958.

The nighttime show Fantasmic! began showing on the river May 13, 1992.

The Mike Fink Keel Boats closed in 1997.

In September 2015, Disneyland Resort announced that the Rivers of America and its attractions would temporarily close starting January 11, 2016, to prepare for a Star Wars-themed land. An official Disneyland Twitter account confirmed that the Rivers of America will have a new route when it reopens from construction. The Rivers of America and its attractions are scheduled to reopen in summer 2017.

The Rivers of America is home to many natural wildlife not intentionally put by Disney. Ducks flying in from local parks, nature reserves and wetlands have brought many freshwater living creatures via their eggs getting stuck on the bottom of their feet and dislodging during landing in the river. Currently the river has many aquatic inhabitants some of them being freshwater carp, Koi fish, occasionally freshwater salmon, catfish, and Red-Eared Slider turtles. Since the Rivers of America is not filtered or chlorinated in any way, Disney has placed mosquitofish in the waterways -which also connect to the Jungle Cruise, the Adventurland-Frontierland-Castle moat, Big Thunder Pond, Storybookland Canal, and the Fantasyland pond which formerly hosted the Fantasyland motorboat cruise- all to battle mosquito larvae from growing. A wildlife food chain had set itself up in the rivers, the mosquito fish eat algae and insect larvae, they are then preyed upon by other river fish and turtles, deceased fish are eaten by catfish, and the food chain continues.

All the waterways in Disneyland are interconnected so that they may go through a natural process of filtration and de-stagnation much like a lake or pond can do. By connecting the waterways, the rivers and moats could act as a single body of water and prevent fouling like an abandoned swimming pool. To this day all the dark green waters of Disneyland are connected via underground connecting tubes, also allowing for aquatic life to pass through. Upon opening of the Rivers of America, the water was a brown color due to the soil and mostly natural clay that kept the water from sinking (the first fill-the-river day failed as the water was absorbed by the sandy Anaheim substrate). When the rivers and moats were eventually embanked by concrete, they didn’t want the water to be clear or it would reveal pipes, guidance tracks, and other hidden functions, so today the rivers are dyed green with chalk, since the chalk doesn’t settle and it doesn’t bother the wildlife. Also included since opening day, a dry dock area for refurbishments.

The Rivers of America and the waterways of Disneyland remain at level even during the hot summer when the water evaporates, because most remaining original park gutters drain into the waterways. On rainy days, the gutters of the parks that are still connected to the Rivers of America allow for the river to rise to its normal level. Over-topping of concrete embankments happens frequently but has never posed a major issue.

Originally, the Rivers of America required draining every 5 years in order to clean up sunken debris, scrub algae forests away, and maintain upkeep of the Mark Twain and Columbia Sailing ship guidance track thermos flask. In January 2010 when the river was drained after 7 years of continual operation, items found in the river were numbered in hundreds of cellphones, pagers, walk-e talkies, a computer tower, a prosthetic leg and half of a Davy Crockett Explorer canoe. To prevent the Jungle Cruise and other waters from draining as well, the underground tubes were plugged with air bladders. Any fish and wildlife found in the river were placed (alive) back into the remaining waters of the park. Any Koi fish found, were donated along with the Koi once kept at the Disneyland Hotel, to the Huntington Library. When the Rivers of America were refilled, the wildlife migrated back into the river. With its most recent refurbishment and the addition of a specialized pumping and cleaning system that would not disrupt the aquatic life, the Rivers of America would not need to be drained for another 20 years.

Fantasmic!, opened on May 13, 1992, takes place on the River, as well as Tom Sawyer Island.

In 2003, the motion picture Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl had its world premiere on the Rivers at Disneyland, with hundreds of celebrities and movie stars viewing the film on a purpose-built 90-foot-tall (27 m) projection screen.

In 2006, the film’s sequel, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest, premiered on June 24 on the Rivers as well, two days before the Pirates of the Caribbean attraction re-opened opposite the Rivers in New Orleans Square after a lengthy refurbishment. For the 2007 premiere of the third installment of the trilogy, the Rivers of America was once again home to the gala for Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End.

The world premiere of On Stranger Tides was on May 7, 2011, at a premium ticket screening at Disneyland in Anaheim, California, home of the original Pirates of the Caribbean ride that inspired the film series. Many of the film’s stars were in attendance. The screening took place on the river with a temporary outdoor theater constructed along with a massive movie screen and sound system installed on the stage on Tom Sawyer’s Island. The Sailing Ship Columbia was decorated like ‘The Black Pearl’ from the movie franchise and moved forward at a close proximity to the theater seating.

Since the opening of the Davy Crockett Explorer canoes, Disneyland Cast Members have hosted an annual event called “The Canoe Races” which takes place before park opening. Cast Members enter the race with a team they form and race in a canoe. The race is watched from the Fronteirland/New Orleans Square area by many Cast Members who cheer on their friends and teammates. (Contrary to popular belief, the canoes are free floating and have no form of propulsion other than the man-power of paddling oars. Cast Members often joke about the difficulties of operating a canoe full of lazy guests who think the boat is motorized).

Over time instances have happened where on two separate occasions, people have drowned while trying to swim to shore.

At Magic Kingdom Park in Walt Disney World, Orlando, the river passes through Frontierland and Liberty Square. The Magic Kingdom river also hosts a cast member canoe race, similar to Disneyland’s, called Canoe Races of the World (C.R.O.W.).

At Tokyo Disneyland top glass water bottles, the river passes through Westernland and Critter Country.

At Disneyland Paris the river is known as the Rivers of the Far West, and it exists in Frontierland. Uniquely at this park, Big Thunder Mountain takes the place of Tom Sawyer Island.

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