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Second Viennese School

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The Second Viennese School (German: Zweite Wiener Schule, Neue Wiener Schule) is the group of composers that comprised Arnold Schoenberg and his pupils and close associates in early 20th century Vienna, where he lived and taught, sporadically, between 1903 and 1925. Their music was initially characterized by late-Romantic expanded tonality and later, following Schoenberg’s own evolution, a totally chromatic expressionism without firm tonal centre (often referred to as atonality) and later still, Schoenberg’s serial twelve-tone technique. Though this common development took place Karen Millen Outlet, it neither followed a common time-line nor a cooperative path. Likewise, it was not a direct result of Schoenberg’s teaching—which (as his various published textbooks demonstrate) was highly traditional and conservative. Schoenberg’s textbooks also reveal that the Second Viennese School spawned not from the development of his serial method, but rather from the influence of his creative example.

The principal members of the school Ted Baker Ireland, besides Schoenberg, were Alban Berg and Anton Webern, who were among his first composition pupils. Both of them had already produced copious and talented music in a late Romantic idiom but felt they gained new direction and discipline from Schoenberg’s teaching. Other pupils of this generation included Ernst Krenek, Heinrich Jalowetz, Erwin Stein and Egon Wellesz, and somewhat later Eduard Steuermann, Hanns Eisler, Roberto Gerhard, Norbert von Hannenheim, Rudolf Kolisch, Paul A. Pisk, Karl Rankl, Josef Rufer, Nikos Skalkottas, Viktor Ullmann, and Winfried Zillig. Though Berg and Webern both followed Schoenberg into total chromaticism and both adopted twelve-tone technique soon after he did, each in his own way, not all of these other pupils did so, or waited for a considerable time before following suit. Schoenberg’s brother-in-law Alexander Zemlinsky is sometimes included as part of the Second Viennese School, though he was never Schoenberg’s pupil and never renounced a traditional conception of tonality. Several yet later pupils, such as Zillig, the Catalan Gerhard, the Transylvanian Hannenheim and the Greek Skalkottas, are sometimes covered by the term, though (apart from Gerhard) they never studied in Vienna but as part of Schoenberg’s masterclass in Berlin. Membership in the school is not generally extended to Schoenberg’s many pupils in the United States from 1933, such as John Cage, Leon Kirchner and Gerald Strang, nor to many other composers who, at a greater remove, wrote compositions evocative of the Second Viennese style, such as the Canadian pianist Glenn Gould. By extension, however, certain pupils of Schoenberg’s pupils (such as Berg’s pupil Hans Erich Apostel and Webern’s pupils René Leibowitz, Leopold Spinner and Ludwig Zenk) are usually included in the roll-call.
Though the school included highly distinct musical personalities (the styles of Berg and Webern are in fact very different from each other, and from Schoenberg—for example, only the works of Webern conform to the rule stated by Schoenberg that only a single row be used throughout all movements of a composition—while Gerhard and Skalkottas were closely involved with the folk music of their respective countries) the impression of cohesiveness was enhanced by the literary efforts of some of its members. Wellesz wrote the first book on Schoenberg, who was also the subject of several Festschriften put together by his friends and pupils; Rufer and Spinner both wrote books on the technique of twelve-tone composition; and Leibowitz’s influential study of Schoenberg, Berg and Webern, Schoenberg et son école, helped to establish the image of a school in the period immediately after World War II in France and abroad. Several of those mentioned (e.g. Jalowetz, Rufer) were also influential as teachers, and others (e.g. Kolisch, Rankl, Stein, Steuermann, Zillig) as performers, in disseminating the ideals, ideas and approved repertoire of the group. Perhaps the culmination of the school took place at Darmstadt almost immediately after WWII, at the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik, wherein Schoenberg—who was invited but too ill to travel—was ultimately usurped in musical ideology by the music of his pupil, Webern, as composers and performers from the Second Viennese School (e.g. Leibowitz, Rufer, Adorno, Kolisch, Heiss, Stadlen, Stuckenschmidt, Scherchen) converged with the new serialists (e.g. Boulez, Stockhausen, Maderna, Nono, et al.).
German musical literature refers to the grouping as the “Wiener Schule” or “Neue Wiener Schule”. The existence of a “First Viennese School” is debatable. The term is often assumed to connote the great Vienna-based masters of the Classical style working in the late 18th and early 19th century, particularly Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert. Though Mozart and Schubert did not study with Haydn, Mozart and Haydn were admirers of each other’s work and evidence suggests that the two composers fed off the other’s compositional craftsmanship. Beethoven, however, did for a time receive lessons from the older master, though he was not a pupil in the sense that Berg and Webern were pupils of Schoenberg.
The term “Third Viennese School” is occasionally used to refer to the composers surrounding the Viennese new music ensemble Klangforum Wien, including its founder Beat Furrer and other late modernists such as Helmut Lachenmann, Olga Neuwirth, Friedrich Cerha and Bernhard Lang.

Ercüment Kafkasyalı

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Ercüment Kafkasyalı (* 13. September 1985 in Ankara) ist ein türkischer Fußballtorhüter.

Kafkasyalı begann mit dem Vereinsfußball 1999 in der Jugend von Ankara Şekerspor. Ein Jahr später wechselte er dann in die Jugend von Gençlerbirliği ASAŞ, der Zweitmannschaft des Erstligisten Gençlerbirliği Ankara. Hier erhielt er 2004 einen Profivertrag und kehrte bereits zwei Monate später zum Stammverein Gençlerbirliği zurück. Dort spielte er fast ausschließlich für die Reservemannschaft und befand sich als dritter Torhüter im Kader der Profimannschaft. Zudem wurde er bis zum Jahr 2010 mehrmals ausgeliehen

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2010 wechselte er zu Konyaspor. Hier saß er in seiner ersten Saison ausschließlich auf der Ersatzbank, während er in der Reserve sporadisch zu Einsätzen kam. Im Sommer 2012 wechselte er zum Drittligisten Polatlı Bugsaşspor. Bereits nach einer Saison wechselte er zum Hauptverein von Bugsaşspor, dem Zweitligisten Ankaraspor Karen Millen Outlet. Mit diesem Verein, der seit Sommer 2014 Osmanlıspor FK heißt, wurde er am Ende der Zweitligasaison 2014/15 Play-off-Sieger der TFF 1. Lig und stieg damit in die auf.
Cemil Adıcan | Murat Akça | Murat Akın | Marius Alexe | Gökhan Alsan | Recep Aydın | Oğuzhan Aynaoğlu | Osman Çelik | İlhan Depe | İsmail Dinler | Rıza Efendioğlu | Adriano Facchini | Gabriel Iancu | Junior Kabananga | Ercüment Kafkasyalı | Elvis Kokalović | Ionuț Neagu | Aykut Özer | Isaac Promise | Muhammet Reis | Emre Sorgun | Ergün Teber | Köksal Yedek | İzzet Yıldırım | Kerim Zengin | Simon Zenke
Trainer: Yücel İldiz

MÁV-Baureihe V60

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Die MÁV-Baureihe V60 war eine stangenbetriebene elektrische Lokomotive der ungarischen Staatsbahn MAV und nach dem System Kandó arbeitende serienmäßig gebaute Elektrolokomotive.

Gleichzeitig mit der MÁV-Baureihe V40 fertigten die Ganz-Werke in Budapest auch eine sechsachsige Elektrolokomotive nach dem System Kandó für den Güterzugdienst. Daher war der Fahrzeugteil und der elektrische Teil dem der MÁV-Baureihe V40 ähnlich.
Die Maschinen bewältigten den Güterzugdienst auf der elektrifizierten Strecke Budapest–Hegyeshalom. Nach vier- bis fünfjährigem Betrieb nahmen die Kosten für die Wartung des mechanischen Getriebes stark zu. Auch mussten die Lokomotiven nach ca. 50.000 km wegen Einstellung des Stangenantriebes aus dem Betrieb genommen werden. Das und die Tatsache, dass die Kurbeln des Antriebsmotors nach ca. 500 000 km wegen Kurbelzapfenrissen ausgetauscht werden mussten, führten auch in Ungarn zu Bestrebungen, elektrische Lokomotiven mit Einzelachsantrieb zu entwickeln. Dazu kam es aber erst nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg mit der Reihe V55.
In den 1960er Jahren wurde das Bahnstromsystem in Ungarn einheitlich auf 25 kV 50 Hz Wechselstrom umgestellt. Das war der Grund, die Kandó-Lokomotiven auszumustern und durch neuere Baureihen zu ersetzen

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. Von der MÁV-Baureihe V60 blieb die V60.003 erhalten. Sie stand jahrelang auf dem Gelände der Universität Budapest ausgestellt und ist nun im Bahnpark Budapest hinterstellt.
Der prinzipielle Aufbau der Lokomotive entspricht dem der Reihe V40. Die elektrische Ausrüstung ist dem der V40 gleich.
Der Unterschied zu dieser Baureihe ergibt sich aus dem Fahrwerk. Alle sechs angetriebenen Achsen verfügten über ein Seitenspiel. Die erste und dritte Karen Millen Outlet, weiterhin die vierte und sechste Achse waren miteinander verbunden durch je einen, an ihren Enden als Kugelzapfen ausgebildeten Hebel, dessen Drehpunkt auf dem Lokomotivrahmen saß. Diese Anordnung gewährleistete eine sichere Kurvengängigkeit der Lokomotive.
Das Triebwerk der Lokomotive stimmte prinzipiell mit dem der Baureihe V40 überein, nur die Abmessungen der Kuppelstangen waren unterschiedlich. Die Tragfedern sämtlicher Achsen befand sich unter denen und entsprach den Normen der MAV. Die Achslagergehäuse von je drei Treibrädern waren durch eine mit Ausgleichshebel versehene Aufhängevorrichtung verbunden, so dass der Lokomotivrahmen an vier Aufhängevorrichtungen hing und jeder Hauptträger als ein Zweistützenträger funktionierte.

Arthur Emmons Raymond

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Arthur Emmons Raymond (March 24, 1899 in Boston Massachusetts – March 22, 1999 in Santa Monica, California) was an aeronautical engineer who led the team that designed the DC-3.
Raymond grew up in Pasadena, California, the son of the owner of a luxury hotel. He completed a B.A. at Harvard University, and a M.S Karen Millen Outlet. in aeronautical engineering at MIT in 1921.
Raymond spent his entire career at the Douglas Aircraft Company. Beginning as a metal fitter, he rose to the rank of Chief Engineer, contributing to the design of all Douglas airliners from the DC-2 to the DC-8

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. During World War II, he helped managed the huge effort that produced tens of thousands of aircraft for that war.
Raymond is best known as the lead designer of the DC-3, “The Plane That Changed the World,” the first airliner that could break even hauling passengers without a government subsidy and without carrying mail. The military equivalent of the DC-3 was the C-47. In Europe, the DC-3 was known as the “Dakota

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.” Raymond’s grandson Stephen has said: “In the DC-3, he did almost everything. He knew every bolt and screw in that plane.” About 10,600 DC-3s and C-47s were eventually built between 1934 and 1945, making it the most produced airliner of all time. At the time of Raymond’s death, about 2,000 DC-3s were still flying and about 400 were still in commercial service.
After retiring from Douglas in 1960, NASA put Raymond in charge of supervising the outside contractors on Project Gemini and Project Apollo until 1969. When Boeing and other aerospace firms proposed in the late 1960s to build a supersonic airliner with substantial subsidies from the US government, Raymond argued that the plane was not commercially viable. The USA government ceased subsidizing the design of the American supersonic transport in 1971, whereupon it died.
At the end of WWII, Raymond proposed to the USAF that they create an organization to think about intercontinental warfare. That organization became the Rand Corporation, of which he was a founding member. He was also a founding member of the National Academy of Engineering. In 1991 he received the National Air and Space Museum Lifetime Achievement Trophy.
He died just 2 days before his 100th birthday.
Stephen Raymond said of his grandfather: “He was always known as the kind of person who spoke truth to power. They depended on him to unearth the things that were wrong from the spinmeisters who were saying everything was dandy.”

Eanfrith (Bernicia)

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Eanfrith (auch Eanfrid, Enfrid, Anfrith, Eanfirdus, Eanferð, Eanferþ; † 634) war in den Jahren 633/634–634 König des angelsächsischen Königreiches Bernicia.

Eanfrith war der älteste Sohn des Königs Æthelfrith von Northumbria und entstammte vermutlich dessen erster Ehe mit Bebba. Seine Stiefmutter Acha war eine Cousine Osrics (633–634), des Königs von Deira

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Er war mit der Tochter des Gwid (633-653), eines König der Pikten, deren Name nicht überliefert wurde, verheiratet. Mit ihr hatte den Sohn Talorgan mac Enfret und eine Tochter, deren Name unbekannt ist. Die Tochter heiratete Beli und wurde die Mutter des späteren Piktenkönigs Brudei/Bridei Talorgan wurde später (653–657) König der Pikten.
Eanfriths Vater Æthelfrith eroberte um 604 Deira und vereinigte beide Reiche zum neuen Königreich Northumbria. Æthelfrith fiel 616 in der Schlacht am Fluss Idle gegen Raedwald von East Anglia und dessen Schützling Edwin. Edwin hatte als Erbe der Könige von Deira Anspruch auf den northumbrischen Thron erhoben, den er nun bestieg. Eanfrith, als Sohn seines Feindes Karen Millen Outlet, musste ins Exil und zog nach Schottland, wo er die christliche Kultur kennenlernte und sich taufen ließ. Im Exil heiratete eine Prinzessin der Pikten.
Im Jahr 633 verbündeten sich die Könige Cadwallon ap Cadfan von Gwynedd und Penda von Mercia und rebellierten gegen Eanfriths Vorgänger König Edwin von Northumbria. Gemeinsam brachten sie eine ansehnliche Streitmacht zusammen, der es gelang, das northumbrische Heer am 12. Oktober 633 in der Schlacht von Hatfield Chase bei Doncaster zu vernichten. Edwin fiel im Kampf; ebenso sein Sohn Osfrith. Sein Sohn Eadfrith musste sich ergeben und wurde später von Penda ermordet. Unmittelbare Folge der Niederlage war die erneute Teilung Northumbrias: Während sich im südlichen Deira Osric, ein Verwandter Edwins, halten konnte, fiel das nördliche Bernicia an den aus dem Exil zurückgekehrten Eanfrith, und damit an die dortige alte Dynastie zurück. Möglicherweise wurde Eanfrith bei der Machtübernahme von Domnall Brecc, dem König der Pikten unterstützt.
Beda Venerabilis zufolge sollen Osric und Eanfrith getaufte Christen gewesen sein, die sich nach der Thronbesteigung wieder der Angelsächsischen Religion anschlossen. Osric setzte den Kampf gegen Cadwallon fort, den er 634, vermutlich in York, einschloss und belagerte. Bei einem Ausfall Cadwallons fiel Osric und sein Heer wurde aufgerieben. Cadwallon zog plündernd durch Northumbria und ließ Eanfrith, der zum Friedensschluss bereit war, ermorden. Noch im selben Jahr fiel Cadwallon in der Schlacht von Heavenfield im Kampf gegen Eanfriths christlichen Halbbruder Oswald, der Northumbria unter seiner Herrschaft wieder vereinte.

Moss Airport, Rygge

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Moss Airport, Rygge (Norwegian: Moss lufthavn, Rygge; IATA: RYG, ICAO: ENRY) is an international airport serving Moss, Oslo and Eastern Norway. It is located in Rygge, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) outside Moss and 60 kilometres (37 mi) outside Oslo. Both a regional airport for Østfold county as well as for low-cost airlines, it is owned and operated by the private company Rygge Sivile Lufthavn AS. The airport is co-located with Rygge Air Station, operated by the Royal Norwegian Air Force, who also own the land and runway. The control tower services (air traffic control) are operated by Avinor. In addition to charter flights Karen Millen Online, the airport is a base for Ryanair.
The airport opened on 8 October 2007, but did not officially open until 14 February 2008, when regular scheduled services started. In March 2010, Ryanair established a base at the airport, and has moved most of its Oslo-bound flights from Sandefjord Airport, Torp. The airport has a capacity for 2 million passengers per year, but cannot reach this because of a concession limit of 21,000 annual air movements. The airport had 619,000 passengers in 2009. Rygge has an airport rail link, via a shuttle bus, at Rygge Station.

The first aerodrome at Rygge was built in 1942 and 1943, but was located about 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) west from the current runway. The aerodrome was closed in 1945, but reopened in 1949 as a military aviation school, although the school only remained for two years. In 1952 it was decided that Rygge was to become a military air station which met NATO specifications. This included the expropriation of 600 hectares (1,500 acres) of land, costing NOK 12 million. The new Rygge Main Air Station was established on 15 September 1954, after investments of NOK 127 million. The old airport was closed and remained a camp until it was closed in 2003. Rygge Main Air Station hosted the 332 Squadron, and later the 336 Squadron and the 330 Squadron. From 2003, the fighter jets were moved from Rygge to Bodø Main Air Station.
On 8 October 1998, the main airport serving Oslo and Eastern Norway was moved from Oslo Airport, Fornebu to Oslo Airport, Gardermoen.[citation needed] Several other locations, including Hurum, Hobøl and Ås, had been considered, all which were located closer to Oslo and the Oslofjord area. The choice of location was controversial, in part because Gardermoen would be located further than Fornebu from among other things Østfold and Follo. In 1998, a report was made by SCC Trafikon which concluded that by building a civilian section at Rygge Air Station, it would be possible to generate 130,000 passengers per year, of which 40,000 would be charter travels. This was a higher passenger potential than Torp. Several regional airlines, such as Teddy Air, Air Stord and Coast Air, all stated that they could be interested in routes from Rygge, while Scandinavian Airlines, Braathens and Widerøe stated that they were not interested in flying from the airport. The idea was initially supported by local parliamentarians, Østfold County Council and the Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise. The latter stated that the most important air routes were those to Gardermoen and Torp, while the Trafikon report recommended routes to Bergen, Stavanger, Trondheim and Copenhagen.
In February 1999, Minister of Transport and Communications Dag Jostein Fjærvoll stated that he supported the opening of civilian traffic from Rygge. Estimates from then were for an investment of 80 million Norwegian krone for a capacity of 150,000 annual passengers. However, the plans allowed for further expansion to 500,000 annual passengers. In July, the operating company Rygge Sivile Lufthavn was established. Owners were Borregaard (46.7%), Østfold County Municipality (20%), M. Peterson & Søn (16.6%) and Capricorn Invest (16.6%). The share capital was initially NOK 3 million. Egil Ullebø was appointed the company’s chair. According to the plans, the company would need NOK 50 million in share capital, and the Norwegian Civil Airport Administration was intended to own 34% of the airport.
On 12 January 2000, Københavns Lufthavne, which operates among other things Copenhagen Airport, bought 33.3% of the shares in Rygge Sivile Lufthavn. The company stated that they had invited the Norwegian Civil Airport Administration to purchase part of the company, but that no decision had been made by the government agency. The company stated that they were therefore forced to invite a foreign airport operate to purchase part of the company to have sufficient competence in airport operations. In December, the Norwegian Civil Airport Administration stated that they were negative to the plans for civilian traffic at Rygge. The administration operates with the model that the large airports, in particular Gardermoen, make a profit, which is used to finance the deficits at smaller airports. The administration stated that establishing a civilian airport at Rygge would undermine the financial structure of Norwegian airports and would breach the political presumptions for constructing Gardermoen. If the administration was to be able to complete on price with Rygge, the state would have to give the necessary grants to cover the deficits at other airports. At the same time, Torp was required to pay their own air traffic control costs, which until then had been covered by the administration. In September 2001, the Norwegian Competition Authority supported the airport, stating that it would allow more competition on international flights from Norway, and could make it easier to establish domestic competition in the lieu of Scandinavian Airline’s take-over of Braathens.
In June 2002, Norwegian Air Shuttle stated that they would start flights from Rygge, should the airport be built. At the same time, the military and the airport company were discussing where the optimal location for the terminal should be. Once decided, the Rygge Sivile Lufthavn hoped to send an application for a concession to the Ministry of Transport and Communications. In March 2003, Rygge Labour Party stated they were opposed to the civilian airport, because of the local noise concerns. In May, the airport company confirmed that Ryanair, which was using Torp, had shown interest in using Rygge. In June, the Rygge Sivile Lufthavn stated that had changed their strategy, and that they now were going to primarily target low-cost airlines. The airport hoped to initially establish routes to Copenhagen, Stockholm, London and Amsterdam, and that international destinations would be prioritized before domestic destinations. In February 2004, the Civil Aviation Authority stated that 51 issues needed to be resolved before civilian traffic would be permitted.
In a report published by the ministry in March 2004, it was estimated that the airport would have 700,000 to 800,000 passengers per year, making it the eighth largest in the country, and could have 1.3 million passengers by 2030. In a reply, the Federation of Norwegian Aviation Industries stated that they were opposed to establishing a new airport, and stated that there were sufficient airports in Eastern Norway. They stated that an airport outside Avinor (the new name for the Norwegian Civil Airport Administration) would result lower profits at Gardermoen, and thus higher fees for the rest of the airports. In addition, the airlines would have higher costs having to operate to additional airports in Eastern Norway. The project was also met with local protests. In particular, they were concerned about the emission to the lake Vansjø, alternatively to a Ramsar site in Kurefjorden, and the local noise pollution, with the airport being located close to Moss. Natur og Ungdom were also opposed to the airport, stating that it would increase the amount of air traffic and thus result in an increase in greenhouse gases.
Københavns Lufthavne sold its ownership in the company during 2004, because they were not satisfied with the progress. On 18 November 2004, the air force received the necessary concessions from the ministry to establish a civilian section. The concession contained a limit of 750,000 passengers per year, and had a duration of 10 years. It also requires the airport to be open from 07 to 23 every day and permit general aviation. Negotiations between the air force and Rygge Sivile Lufthavn started in June 2005 to establish an agreement regarding operations and financing. In September, the air force and the company came to an agreement regarding the company’s compensation to the military. The agreement was approved by the Ministry of Defence in January 2006. On 22 February, all permissions had been granted, and the company was able to take an investment decision. The agreements involved, in addition to a new terminal, upgrades to the runway, taxiway and navigational systems, which would be paid for by Rygge Sivile Lufthavn.
On 2 March, the Thon Group purchased 40% of the company. The remaining owners are the Orkla Group (40%), which at the time owned Borregaard, Østfold County Municipality (11%) and Østfold Energi (9%). On 12 June, activists from Natur og Ungdom chained themselves to the control tower in protest against the establishment of civilian aviation. The contract to build the terminal was awarded Skanska. In July, State Secretary Steinulf Tungesvik stated that if necessary, the ministry would use its right to set the prices at Rygge so it would not capture revenue from Gardermoen. At the same time, representatives from Torp, the Federation of Norwegian Aviation Industries and the Conservative Party stated that the agreement between the military and the operating company was illegal subsidies. In September, the Thon Group announced they would not build a planned 34-meter (112 ft) tall hotel at the airport, as military regulations would not permit it.
In January 2007, the charter operators Star Tour, Apollo and MyTravel Airways announced that they would start operating charter flights from 1 October. The initial construction was for seven gates, with possibilities to expand to fourteen. The first phase cost NOK 700 million and included a 16,000-square-meter (170,000 sq ft) terminal with a capacity for two million annual passengers, parking for 1650 cars and various travel facilities, such as duty-free stores, bank and restaurants. By April the airport still only had a single weekly charter route planned and the airport considered postponing. Professor Frode Steen at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration stated that the airlines were postponing to get a better negotiation position. On 7 September, the final agreements between Rygge Sivile Lufthavn and the military were signed.
The airport was opened on 5 October 2007. The first flight from the airport took place on 17 October to the Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. The operator later increased with three more charter destinations early 2008. At the time of the first flight, the operator had sold 95% of the seats on their flights until the end of the year. 85% of the sales were to people living in Østfold. From that day, UniBuss started a coach service from Oslo in correspondence with all departures and arrivals at the airport.
The Civil Aviation Authority introduced a non-flight limitation on the airport from 23 to 07, of consideration to the airport’s neighbors. This was despite the municipal councils in Råde and Rygge supporting night flights. The decision was appealed, with the airport wanting to operate from 06:30 to 23:30, stating that they could lose half of Norwegian’s departures. The ministry granted such a permit on 25 January 2008. This prompted a lawsuit from 150 households within the noise zone, who stated that people with similar noise pollution around Gardermoen had been granted NOK 225,000 in compensation each.
Norwegian Air Shuttle established a base at Rygge on 14 February 2008, with a second aircraft being stationed at the airport from 13 March. From February to April, Norwegian Air Shuttle started international flights to Alicante, Athens, Barcelona, Belgrade, Budapest, Istanbul, London, Málaga, Marrakech, Palanga, Szczecin, Valencia, Warsaw, with between two and four weekly services to each destination. In addition, the airline started two daily services to Bergen. Norwegian’s services to Belgrade, Istanbul, Marrakech, Szczecin and Valencia were all terminated at Gardermoen the same time as they opened at Rygge. The airport stated that they had also been approached by Ryanair, who wanted to move the bulk of their services from Torp, but the airport stated that there was only room for one airline, and that they had prioritized Norwegian.
The first Norwegian Air Shuttle plane took off at the 14 February 2008 heading for Budapest. The same day, the Norwegian State Railways started offering a shuttle bus service from Rygge Station on the Østfold Line to the airport. At the same time, Norwegian Business Aviation started offering executive jets from Rygge. From March, Widerøe started two daily services from Rygge to Copenhagen, the hub for their owner, Scandinavian Airlines. Apollo started flights to Chania from 11 May. Star Tour started weekly charter flights to Antalya, Chania and Palma de Mallorca during the first half of 2008.
From 1 September, Widerøe terminated its Copenhagen route, while Norwegian terminated its London service. In October, Norwegian Air Shuttle introduced new international services to Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Berlin, Kraków and Prague. New domestic routes were introduced to Trondheim, Stavanger, Tromsø and Bodø.
The airport stated that at the growth rate they were experiencing, they would reach their passenger ceiling in 2009, and would not have room for any other airlines than Norwegian. In November, the airport stated that they in 2008 would lose NOK 100 million, and that they needed between NOK 200 and 300 million in new share capital

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. However, neither Orkla nor Thon were willing to invest more in the airport unless they passenger ceiling was lifted. In a vote in the Parliament of Norway on 11 December, the ceiling was not lifted, with the proposal only receiving the votes of the opposition. However, the ministry stated that they were going to consider the limitations in the concession. In January, the owners invested 50 million in the company. The airport had 450,000 passengers in 2008.
In January, Rygge was, with 24,400 passengers, larger than Torp in domestic traffic. In February, the Civil Aviation Authority recommended that the airport’s ceiling be lifted, and this was made effective by the ministry on 1 July. Instead, the airport was limited to 15,000 air movements per year. The ministry stated that the rationale was that the calculations for the original concession were based on smaller aircraft, and that the passenger ceiling was based on an estimated 20,000 take-offs and landings. From January through April, the domestic services from Rygge had captured 6% of the market share from Eastern Norway.
In October and November, Ryanair established itself at the airport, and started flights to Alicante, Barcelona, Brussels, Bremen, Madrid, Milan and London. Norwegian stated that they were not worried about competition from Ryanair, and announced that they would continue with flights to the Mediterranean, Eastern Europe and domestically. However, they would not start the announced services to Amsterdam and London, and instead concentrate their growth at Gardermoen. The company stated that they made 3% of their revenue of Rygge. On 9 September, the ministry increased the air movement ceiling to 21,000 movements per year. On 24 November, Ryanair announced that they would establish a base at Rygge in March 2010. The airline would start services to Århus, Berlin, Dublin, Weeze, Eindhoven, Gdańsk, Kraków, La Rochelle, Málaga, Munich, Palma de Mallorca, Paris, Riga, Wrocław, Valencia and Venice. In December, the company announced further routes to Faro and Zadar.
In 2009, the airport company lost NOK 102 million Karen Millen Outlet. From 5 May, Ryanair started flights to Kaunas. In mid-2010, Norwegian terminated its services to Berlin, Budapest, Palanga, Prague and Valencia, and reduced the frequency to Alicante and Málaga. However, it started new routes to Dalaman and Thessaloniki. In July, Norwegian stated that they were considering terminating all services from Rygge. In particular, the company stated that they were not satisfied with having higher fees than Ryanair, and that they were in negotiations with Torp to move their operations there. In September, Norwegian announced that it was terminating the services to Bodø and Tromsø.
In November 2010, the instrument landing system (ILS) was upgraded from Category I to Category II. This included the installation of 800 light emitting diodes (LED) on the runway and taxiway, making Rygge the first airport in Europe with such an installation. It decreased the requirement for visibility from 800 to 300 meters (2,620 to 980 ft). The upgrades cost NOK 65 million, and made Rygge the second airport with ILS Cat II in Norway, after Stavanger Airport, Sola (Gardermoen has Cat III). The same month, Ryanair started new routes to London, Liverpool, Rome, Tampere. At the same time, Norwegian terminated its service to Stavanger.
The airport is a joint military and civilian airport located in the municipality of Rygge, west of the lake Vansjø. The airport is primarily an international, low-cost airport, but also serves as a domestic regional airport for Østfold and Follo. The airport is owned by the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency, while the civilian terminal is owned by Rygge Sivile Lufthavn AS (“Rygge Civilian Airport”), a private company owned by the Thon Group (40%), the Orkla Group (40%), Østfold Energi (15%) and Østfold County Municipality (5%).
The terminal building is 16,000 square meters (170,000 sq ft), and is dimensioned for 2 million passengers annually. The terminal is open around the clock. There are eight gates and seven aircraft stands, of which two can switch between domestic and international departures.
The runway is 2,442 meters (8,012 ft) long and 45 meters (148 ft) wide. It is equipped with instrument landing system Category II using solely light emitting diodes (LED) as lights. This allows landing with 300 meters (980 ft) visibility. The airport has a taxiway and a de-icing platform.
Rygge Air Station is home to the 720 Squadron of the Royal Norwegian Air Force (NoRAF), which operates Bell 412 helicopters, the 717 Squadron which operates Dassault Falcon 20 jets, and a detachment of the 330 Squadron which operates Westland Sea King search and rescue helicopters. The air station also hosts several support functions, including education, logistics of the air force, and branch of the Norwegian Home Guard. The military run all common functions of the airport, such as the runway, fire and rescue service, and the air traffic control.
Moss Airport, Rygge serves as a base for Ryanair. In addition, there are services to the Mediterranean by Norwegian Air Shuttle. The airport handled 1,890,889 passengers in 2013.
The airport is located 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) from Rygge Station on the Østfold Line. The railway station is 69.28 kilometers (43.05 mi) from Oslo Central Station (Oslo S) and is served by the Norwegian State Railways, who operate an hourly regional train service between Oslo and Halden using NSB Class 73 electric multiple units, with an extra departure in the rush hour. Three of the daily services continue onwards south to Gothenburg, Sweden. Travel time to Oslo S is 50 minutes, to Halden is 55 minutes, and to Gothenburg C is 3 hours and 3 minutes. NSB operates a free shuttle bus to Moss Airport, Rygge, which takes 8 minutes. There is a waiting room in the station building
Moss Airport, Rygge is located 67 kilometers (42 mi) from Oslo; this compares to 49 kilometers (30 mi) for Gardermoen and 120 kilometers (75 mi) for Torp. The terminal building is located next to European Route E6. The airport is located 45 minutes from Oslo, 13 kilometers (8.1 mi) and 12 minutes from Moss, 27 kilometers (17 mi) and 25 minutes from Fredrikstad. Access to Buskerud runs via the Oslofjord Tunnel, while Vestfold is available via the Moss–Horten Ferry. There is parking for 2,500 cars at the airport.
UniBuss operates Rygge-Ekspressen from Oslo with a travel time of 60 minutes. The bus service runs in correspondence with all of Norwegian’s and Ryanair’s flights, leaving 2 hours and 40 minutes before departure. NOR-WAY Bussekspress operates the service Flybussekspressen, which runs from Fredrikstad & Sarpsborg via Moss Airport, Moss and Follo to Oslo Airport, Gardermoen. Travel time to Fredrikstad is 30 minutes, Sarpsborg 20, and travel time to Gardermoen is 1 hour and 40 minutes.

PJ1 TrackBite

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PJ1 TrackBite, formerly known as VHT TrackBite or simply VHT, is a custom formulated resin, typically black in color, used in drag racing to either increase the traction of a car’s tires or as a sealer for newly ground and/or resurfaced race tracks. It stays sticky for weeks, has fire-retardant properties and is hydrophobic. It is generally sprayed onto the track from either a 55-gallon (208-liter) drum or 1 gallon, 2.5 liter and 15 liter plastic jug. It has been used in professional racing since 1972. With the help of Trackbite, a normal street surface can be prepped so well a drag car can lift the front wheels off the ground.[citation needed]
It can also be sprayed from specialized VHT spraying tanks. The TrackBite that the NHRA uses, commercial “VHT TRACKBITE CONCENTRATE” is yellowish in color and per NHRA regulations is diluted with methanol for optimum effect. Trackbite contains no petroleum distillates and is biodegradable when dry.[citation needed]
Its use was prohibited by NASCAR in 2010 to reduce the amount of chemicals used at its events.
The compound originated as a high temperature coating made for NASA by the Sperex Corporation. VHT, a brand owned by Sperex, began offering it for sale commercially Karen Millen Outlet. It was taken up by drag racers, and Sperex soon began producing formulations specially made for the sport. Sperex was purchased in 1989 by businessman P. J. Harvey and is now part of PJH Brands.

Civita di Bagnoregio

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Civita è una frazione del comune di Bagnoregio, in provincia di Viterbo, nel Lazio, facente parte dei borghi più belli d’Italia, famosa per essere denominata “La città che muore”.

Abitata da una decina di persone e situata in posizione isolata, è raggiungibile solo attraverso un ponte pedonale in cemento armato costruito nel 1965. Il ponte può essere percorso soltanto a piedi, ma recentemente il comune di Bagnoregio, venendo incontro alle esigenze di chi vive o lavora in questo luogo, ha emesso una circolare in cui dichiara che, in determinati orari, residenti e persone autorizzate possono attraversare il ponte a bordo di cicli e motocicli. La causa del suo isolamento è la progressiva erosione della collina e della vallata circostante, che ha dato vita alle tipiche forme dei calanchi e che continua ancora oggi, rischiando di far scomparire la frazione, per questo chiamata anche “la città che muore” o, più raramente, “il paese che muore”.
La valle dei calanchi è situata tra il lago di Bolsena ad ovest e la valle del Tevere ad est, nel comune di Bagnoregio. È costituita da due valli principali: il Fossato del Rio Torbido e il Fossato del Rio Chiaro. In origine questi luoghi dovevano essere più dolci e accessibili ed erano attraversati da un’antica strada che collegava la valle del Tevere al Lago di Bolsena.
La morfologia di quest’area è stata provocata dall’erosione e dalle frane. Il territorio è costituito da due formazioni distinte per cronologia e tipo. Quella più antica è quella argillosa, di origine marina e costituisce lo strato di base, particolarmente soggetto all’erosione. Gli strati superiori sono invece formati da materiale tufaceo e lavico. La veloce erosione è dovuta all’opera dei torrenti, agli agenti atmosferici, ma anche al disboscamento.
La superficie del territorio di Civita di Bagnoregio non è molto estesa, ma abbastanza eterogenea. La vegetazione dei calanchi, a causa della loro natura argillosa, è limitata a poche specie, disposte in piccoli e radi gruppi. Anche in primavera, quando la flora è al massimo rigoglio, il terreno rimane per buona parte scoperto. Nella fascia più bassa dei calanchi si trova una zona cespugliosa, costituita da rovi, canne, ginestre, qualche arbusto di olmo e

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, talvolta, rosa canina. All’interno della valle la vegetazione è costituita da piante arboree, da arbusti e da erbe palustri. La vegetazione delle rupi tufacee dello sperone roccioso sul quale si erge Civita, risulta limitata a poche specie con copertura esigua.
La fauna di questa zona è quella tipica delle aree collinari dell’Alto Lazio. Negli ambienti boschivi, costituiti soprattutto da macchie di bosco ceduo, tra le principali specie di mammiferi risultano il riccio tra gli insettivori, l’istrice tra i roditori, la volpe, la donnola Karen Millen Outlet, il tasso, la faina e il cinghiale tra i carnivori. Inoltre presenti la tortora e l’upupa, entrambi estivi. Da segnalare la gremita comunità felina che vive all’interno delle mura della città. Non si tratta di gatti selvatici, ma di gatti domestici randagi, la cui presenza va certamente collegata all’ambiente antropico abbandonato.
Civita venne fondata 2500 anni fa dagli Etruschi. Sorge su una delle più antiche vie d’Italia, congiungente il Tevere (allora grande via di navigazione dell’Italia Centrale) e il lago di Bolsena.
All’antico abitato di Civita si accedeva mediante cinque porte, mentre oggi la porta detta di Santa Maria o della Cava, costituisce l’unico accesso al paese. La struttura urbanistica dell’intero abitato è di origine etrusca, costituita da cardi e decumani secondo l’uso etrusco e poi romano, mentre l’intero rivestimento architettonico risulta medioevale e rinascimentale. Numerose sono le testimonianze della fase etrusca di Civita, specialmente nella zona detta di San Francesco vecchio; infatti nella rupe sottostante il belvedere di San Francesco vecchio è stata ritrovata una piccola necropoli etrusca. Anche la grotta di San Bonaventura, nella quale si dice che San Francesco risanò il piccolo Giovanni Fidanza, che divenne poi San Bonaventura, è in realtà una tomba a camera etrusca. Gli etruschi fecero di Civita (di cui non conosciamo l’antico nome) una fiorente città, favorita dalla posizione strategica per il commercio, grazie alla vicinanza con le più importanti vie di comunicazione del tempo.
Del periodo etrusco rimangono molte testimonianze: di particolare suggestione è il cosiddetto “Bucaione”, un profondo tunnel che incide la parte più bassa dell’abitato, e che permette l’accesso, direttamente dal paese, alla Valle dei Calanchi. In passato erano inoltre visibili molte tombe a camera, scavate alla base della rupe di Civita e delle altre pareti di tufo limitrofe che purtroppo furono in gran parte fagocitate, nei secoli, dalle innumerevoli frane. Del resto, già gli stessi Etruschi dovettero far fronte ai problemi di sismicità e di instabilità dell’area, che nel 280 a.C. si concretarono in scosse telluriche e smottamenti. All’arrivo dei romani, nel 265 a.C., furono riprese le imponenti opere di canalizzazione delle acque piovane e di contenimento dei torrenti avviate dagli etruschi.
Come detto sopra, il problema dell’erosione era già all’epoca degli Etruschi molto importante. Quindi misero in atto alcune opere che avevano il preciso scopo di proteggere Civita dai terremoti e dagli smottamenti, arginando fiumi e costruendo canali di scolo per il corretto deflusso delle acque piovane. I romani ripresero le opere dei loro predecessori, ma dopo di loro queste furono trascurate ed il territorio ebbe un rapido degrado che portò, infine, all’abbandono della Civita.
All’interno del borgo rimangono varie case medievali, la chiesa di San Donato, che si affaccia sulla piazza principale e dove al suo interno è custodito il S.S. Crocefisso ligneo, il Palazzo Vescovile, un mulino del XVI secolo, la casa natale di San Bonaventura e la porta di Santa Maria, con due leoni che tengono tra le zampe una testa umana, a ricordo di una rivolta popolare degli abitanti di Civita contro la famiglia orvietana dei Monaldeschi.
Nel 2005 i calanchi di Civita di Bagnoregio sono stati proposti come sito di interesse comunitario.
Il giorno del venerdì santo avviene il più sentito appuntamento della cittadina di Civita, quando all’interno della Chiesa di San Donato, durante una commovente cerimonia, viene deposto il S.S. Crocifisso il quale viene adagiato su una bara per trasportarlo all’interno della secolare Processione del Venerdì Santo di Bagnoregio. La leggenda vuole che durante un’epidemia di peste che nel 1499 riguardò tutto il territorio intorno a Bagnoregio, il Crocifisso abbia parlato ad una Pia donna, la quale si recava ogni giorno al cospetto della venerata Immagine chiedendo con le sue preghiere che avesse fine lo strazio. Un giorno, mentre la donna pregava “il Cristo”, udì una voce, che la rassicurava e la avvertiva che il Signore aveva esaudito le sue preghiere e che la pestilenza avrebbe a breve avuto fine, come puntualmente avvenne dopo qualche giorno contemporaneamente alla morte della Pia donna.
Il vecchio paese è iscritto all’associazione de I borghi più belli d’Italia. Per la sua posizione geografica suggestiva e il suo impianto medievale è ogni anno meta di numerosi turisti ed è stata diverse volte utilizzata come set cinematografico.
Da giugno 2013 l’accesso al Borgo di Civita di Bagnoregio costa €1,50.
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Past Brothers

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Past Brothers Rugby League Football Club, more commonly known as ‘Brothers’, ‘The Brethren’ or as ‘the Leprechauns’, were a rugby league club in Brisbane, Australia, that played in the top level of football since their foundation in 1929 until 1998.

Past Brothers was founded in 1929 when former members (Tom Gorman, Gerry Allman, Stan Ross amongst others) of the Brothers Old Boys decided to found a new Club to compete in the QRL Metropolitan competition.
Brothers Old Boys remained in the BRL competition for the 1929 season before going back to Rugby in 1930, where upon the Past Brothers Club joined the BRL competition.
Past Brothers did not win their first premiership until 1935, but quickly backed it up with more in 1939, 1942 and 1943. When district football was introduced in the 1930s, Brothers clearly defied the idea as, unlike their competition counterparts Valleys, Norths, Souths, Easts and Wests, they were not a location in Brisbane. And although pressure was placed upon them by governing bodies, they were allowed to keep their unique name.
In the 1960s, while playing for Brothers, Peter Gallagher was selected as captain of Australia.
Brothers’ last success was as premiers in 1987, defeating the Redcliffe Dolphins in the Grand Final. They had been runner-up to the Wynnum-Manly Seagulls the year before in 1986. By the time the Brisbane Broncos entered the New South Wales Rugby League in 1988, they were in financial trouble that only got worse as the years progressed. They were forced out of their traditional home at Corbett Park by financial administrators, and after temporarily playing out of Crosby Park, they relocated to Bray Park, renaming the club Pine Rivers Brothers. In 1998, they moved back to Brisbane under the name Brisbane Brothers and became a feeder club to the Broncos, before closing at season’s end.
Seemingly out of their financial hardship by the turn of the century, Brothers applied for a position in the 2000 and 2001 Queensland Cups, but were ultimately unsuccessful. In 2002, they merged with Valleys, and formed Brothers-Valleys, playing in the Quest Cup before re-entering the Queensland Cup in 2004. They finished last, with their only point coming from a draw in Round 1. A new name and jersey was planned for the following year, but on 22 November the Queensland Rugby League announced:
At present, Past Brothers spirit continues to compete in the South East Division junior competitions, playing out of Gibson Park in Stafford as Brisbane Brothers JRLFC.
Traditionally the club wears a predominantly navy blue jersey with white butcher stripes (irregular hoops), although for a time they wore an all-navy blue jersey with a thick white bar through the middle. The numbers on the backs of the players’ jerseys were normally red on a white background, although, depending on the jersey design being used, they were sometimes white on a blue background.
Traditionally the club’s home ground was Corbett Park in Grange, however they were forced out by financial administrators when the club’s financial position severely worsened. They temporarily played out of Crosby Park in Albion and Lang Park, but in 1996 they relocated to Bray Park in the Pine Rivers Shire, hoping for greener pastures. This proved unsuccessful, and in 1998 they were back in Brisbane. Through their feeder club arrangement with the Brisbane Broncos, they played some “home” games as curtain-raisers at ANZ Stadium, with the remainder at Crosby Park, sharing the venue with Brothers Rugby Club. Currently, the brand name lives on in Brisbane through the Junior club, Brisbane Brothers JRLFC Karen Millen Outlet, which has successfully operated out of Gibson Park, Stafford, since 2006.

Ottawa Junior Riders

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The Ottawa Junior Riders are a Canadian football team based in the Nepean area of Ottawa. The team began operations in 1995 as the Gloucester Redskins, and operated as such until the conclusion of the 1996 QJFL season. With the folding of the CFL’s Ottawa Rough Riders, the Gloucester Redskins changed their name to the current Ottawa Junior Riders and changed their colors from burgundy, yellow and white Karen Millen Outlet, to the current red, black and white. The organization began competing in the Quebec Junior Football League in 1995, and did so until the end of the 2000 season. In 2001 the Ottawa Junior Riders began play in the Ontario Football Conference of the Canadian Junior Football League. The Ottawa Junior Riders played in the CJFL until the end of the 2005 season, when they returned to the QJFL for the beginning of the 2006 season. Although the team did not garner much success in the OFC/CJFL, they have won 6 Manson Cup QJFL Championships in their 9 years of competition in that league (1998, 1999, 2000, 2006, 2007, 2008). Since their entry into the QJFL, the Ottawa Junior Riders have developed a great rivalry with the Ottawa Sooners. Both teams welcome a third team to the Ottawa area, the Cumberland Panthers.
The Ottawa Junior Riders currently play at the Nepean Sportsplex, but have previously called Frank Clair Stadium at Lansdowne Park their home.

Dean Dorsey 1995-1998
Dan Murphy 1999-2002
Andy McEvoy 2003
Luigi Costanzo 2004-2009
Max Palladino 2010-
Scott Gordon, a Defensive Back for the Edmonton Eskimos.
Pat Fleming, played Punter for the Ottawa Renegades, Hamilton Tiger-Cats and Winnipeg Blue Bombers.
Lenard Semajuste played Fullback for the Winnipeg Blue Bombers.
The following is a list of Players, Coaches and Builders who have been inducted into the Ottawa Junior Riders Hall of Fame.
Bob Brazeau – Equipment Manager – Builder
Sue Brazeau – General Manager – Builder
Dave St-Pierre – Statistician – Builder
Teresa Gilchrist – General Manager – Builder
Karen Cameron – Trainer – Builder
Dean Dorsey – Head Coach – Coach
Dan Murphy – Head Coach – Coach
Eddie Ghantous – RB – Player
Scott Gordon – DB – Player
Steve Kasouf – LB – Player
Tucker McCabe – QB – Player
Devin Murphy – DB – Player
Richard Tremblay – WR – Player
Curtis McCausland – OL – Player
Casey Bergeron – OL – Player
Aaron Snow – OL – Player
Dexter Ross – DL – Player
Joe Costanzo – RB – Player

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