11 человек (2004)
Широкий Рог (белор. Шырокі Рог) — посёлок в Заболотском сельсовете Рогачёвского района Гомельской области Беларуси.
В 14 км на юго-запад от районного центра и железнодорожной станции Рогачёв (на линии Могилёв — Жлобин), 135 км от Гомеля.
Транспортные связи по просёлочной, затем автомобильной дороге Бобруйск — Гомель. Планировка состоит из короткой прямолинейной улицы, близкой к меридиональной ориентации и застроенной деревянными усадьбами.
Основан в начале XX века how to make tender beef steak. как селение в Рогачёвском уезде Могилёвской губернии. В 1931 году жители вступили в колхоз. Во время Великой Отечественной войны 7 жителей погибли на фронте. Согласно переписи 1959 года в составе колхоза имени М. И. Калинина (центр — деревня Заболотье).
Mark Henry Washington (* 28. Dezember 1947 in Chicago, Illinois) ist ein ehemaliger US-amerikanischer American-Football-Spieler. Er gewann als Cornerback mit den Dallas Cowboys zweimal den Super Bowl (VI, XII).
Mark Washington besuchte in seiner Geburtsstadt die High School. Nach seinem Schulabschluss studierte er an der Morgan State University in Baltimore. An seinem College spielte er für die Morgan State Bears College Football. Mit seiner in der Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) angesiedelten Mannschaft gewann er im Jahr 1966 den Tangerine Bowl. Im Jahr 1968 gelang ihm der Gewinn der Meisterschaft der CIAA.
Mark Washington wurde im NFL Draft 1970 von den Dallas Cowboys, die von Tom Landry trainiert wurden, in der 13. Runde an 335. Stelle ausgewählt. Washington fand in Dallas mit Mel Renfro und Herb Adderley starke Konkurrenten auf seiner Spielerposition vor, die beide nach ihrer Laufbahn in die Pro Football Hall of Fame aufgenommen wurden. Er wurde daher zunächst als Ersatzmann in der Defense eingesetzt.
Bereits in seinem ersten Spieljahr konnte Washington mit den Cowboys nach einem 17:10 Sieg über die San Francisco 49ers die Meisterschaft der National Football Conference (NFC) gewinnen. Im folgenden Super Bowl V gelang es Washington ein Field Goal der Baltimore Colts abzuwehren, an der 16:13 Niederlage seiner Mannschaft änderte dies jedoch nichts.
Im folgenden Jahr übernahm Roger Staubach die Rolle des Starting-Quarterbacks bei der Mannschaft aus Dallas. Mark Washington, der aufgrund einer Knieverletzung zu Beginn der Spielrunde fast die gesamte Saison ausfiel und die Cowboys gewannen in diesem Jahr nach einem 14:3 Sieg über die San Francisco 49ers im NFC Championship Game den Super Bowl VI gegen die von Don Shula trainierten Miami Dolphins mit 24:3.
Nach der Saison 1972 beendete Herb Adderley seine Laufbahn. Die Hoffnung von Mark Washington, dessen Position als Starter einnehmen zu können, wurde jedoch nicht erfüllt. Adderley wurde stattdessen durch Charlie Waters ersetzt waist running belt.
In der Spielzeit 1975 konnte Washington dann zum dritten Mal in den Super Bowl einziehen. Seine Mannschaft gewann zunächst das NFC Championship Game gegen die Los Angeles Rams mit 37:7, konnte sich allerdings gegen die Pittsburgh Steelers, die von Chuck Noll betreut wurden, nicht durchsetzen und verlor im Super Bowl X knapp mit 21:17. Mark Washington wurde in diesem Spiel als Starter aufgeboten und konnte die überragende Leistung seines Gegenspielers Lynn Swann in diesem Spiel nicht verhindern. Swann gelang es durch Passfänge einen Raumgewinn von 161 Yards zu erzielen. Zudem verwertete er einen Passfang zu einem Touchdown für die Mannschaft aus Pittsburgh und wurde nach dem Spiel zum MVP gewählt.
Zwei Jahre später gelang den Dallas Cowboys mit Mark Washington allerdings der zweite Super Bowl Sieg. Er zog mit seinem Team nach zwölf Siegen bei zwei Niederlagen in der regular Season 1977 in das NFC Championship Game ein, wo die Minnesota Vikings bei ihrer 23:6 Niederlage chancenlos blieben. Diesem Spiel folgte ein 27:10 Sieg über die Denver Broncos, womit Mark Washington seinen zweiten Super Bowl gewinnen konnte.
Mark Washington wurde nach der Saison 1979 von den Dallas Cowboys entlassen und schloss sich daraufhin den New England Patriots an. Nach einem Jahr bei den Patriots beendete er seine Karriere.
Mark Washington arbeitete nach seiner Laufbahn in der Chemieindustrie.
Mark Washington wurde im Jahr 1993 in die Ruhmeshalle seines Colleges aufgenommen clothes fluff remover.
Wave–particle duality is the concept that every elementary particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts “particle” or “wave” to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects. As Albert Einstein wrote: “It seems as though we must use sometimes the one theory and sometimes the other, while at times we may use either. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty. We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do“.
Through the work of Max Planck, Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Niels Bohr and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles also have a wave nature (and vice versa). This phenomenon has been verified not only for elementary particles, but also for compound particles like atoms and even molecules. For macroscopic particles, because of their extremely short wavelengths, wave properties usually cannot be detected.
Although the use of the wave-particle duality has worked well in physics, the meaning or interpretation has not been satisfactorily resolved; see Interpretations of quantum mechanics.
Niels Bohr regarded the “duality paradox” as a fundamental or metaphysical fact of nature. A given kind of quantum object will exhibit sometimes wave, sometimes particle, character, in respectively different physical settings. He saw such duality as one aspect of the concept of complementarity. Bohr regarded renunciation of the cause-effect relation, or complementarity, of the space-time picture, as essential to the quantum mechanical account.
Werner Heisenberg considered the question further. He saw the duality as present for all quantic entities, but not quite in the usual quantum mechanical account considered by Bohr. He saw it in what is called second quantization, which generates an entirely new concept of fields which exist in ordinary space-time, causality still being visualizable. Classical field values (e.g. the electric and magnetic field strengths of Maxwell) are replaced by an entirely new kind of field value, as considered in quantum field theory. Turning the reasoning around, ordinary quantum mechanics can be deduced as a specialized consequence of quantum field theory.
Democritus—the original atomist—argued that all things in the universe, including light, are composed of indivisible sub-components (light being some form of solar atom). At the beginning of the 11th Century, the Arabic scientist Alhazen wrote the first comprehensive treatise on optics; describing refraction, reflection, and the operation of a pinhole lens via rays of light traveling from the point of emission to the eye. He asserted that these rays were composed of particles of light. In 1630, René Descartes popularized and accredited the opposing wave description in his treatise on light, showing that the behavior of light could be re-created by modeling wave-like disturbances in a universal medium (“plenum”). Beginning in 1670 and progressing over three decades, Isaac Newton developed and championed his corpuscular hypothesis, arguing that the perfectly straight lines of reflection demonstrated light’s particle nature; only particles could travel in such straight lines. He explained refraction by positing that particles of light accelerated laterally upon entering a denser medium. Around the same time, Newton’s contemporaries Robert Hooke and Christiaan Huygens—and later Augustin-Jean Fresnel—mathematically refined the wave viewpoint, showing that if light traveled at different speeds in different media (such as water and air), refraction could be easily explained as the medium-dependent propagation of light waves. The resulting Huygens–Fresnel principle was extremely successful at reproducing light’s behavior and was subsequently supported by Thomas Young’s 1803 discovery of double-slit interference. The wave view did not immediately displace the ray and particle view, but began to dominate scientific thinking about light in the mid 19th century, since it could explain polarization phenomena that the alternatives could not.
James Clerk Maxwell discovered that he could apply his equations for electromagnetism, which had been previously discovered, along with a slight modification to describe self-propagating waves of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. When the propagation speed of these electromagnetic waves was calculated, the speed of light fell out. It quickly became apparent that visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared light (phenomena thought previously to be unrelated) were all electromagnetic waves of differing frequency. The wave theory had prevailed—or at least it seemed to.
While the 19th century had seen the success of the wave theory at describing light, it had also witnessed the rise of the atomic theory at describing matter. Antoine Lavoisier deduced the law of conservation of mass and categorized many new chemical elements and compounds; and Joseph Louis Proust advanced chemistry towards the atom by showing that elements combined in definite proportions. This led John Dalton to propose that elements were invisible sub components; Amedeo Avogadro discovered diatomic gases and completed the basic atomic theory, allowing the correct molecular formulae of most known compounds—as well as the correct weights of atoms—to be deduced and categorized in a consistent manner. Dimitri Mendeleev saw an order in recurring chemical properties, and created a table presenting the elements in unprecedented order and symmetry.
At the close of the 19th century, the reductionism of atomic theory began to advance into the atom itself; determining, through physics, the nature of the atom and the operation of chemical reactions. Electricity, first thought to be a fluid, was now understood to consist of particles called electrons. This was first demonstrated by J. J. Thomson in 1897 when, using a cathode ray tube, he found that an electrical charge would travel across a vacuum (which would possess infinite resistance in classical theory). Since the vacuum offered no medium for an electric fluid to travel, this discovery could only be explained via a particle carrying a negative charge and moving through the vacuum. This electron flew in the face of classical electrodynamics, which had successfully treated electricity as a fluid for many years (leading to the invention of batteries, electric motors, dynamos, and arc lamps). More importantly, the intimate relation between electric charge and electromagnetism had been well documented following the discoveries of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Since electromagnetism was known to be a wave generated by a changing electric or magnetic field (a continuous, wave-like entity itself) an atomic/particle description of electricity and charge was a non sequitur. Furthermore, classical electrodynamics was not the only classical theory rendered incomplete.
In 1901, Max Planck published an analysis that succeeded in reproducing the observed spectrum of light emitted by a glowing object. To accomplish this, Planck had to make an ad hoc mathematical assumption of quantized energy of the oscillators (atoms of the black body) that emit radiation. Einstein later proposed that electromagnetic radiation itself is quantized, not the energy of radiating atoms.
Black-body radiation, the emission of electromagnetic energy due to an object’s heat, could not be explained from classical arguments alone. The equipartition theorem of classical mechanics, the basis of all classical thermodynamic theories, stated that an object’s energy is partitioned equally among the object’s vibrational modes. But applying the same reasoning to the electromagnetic emission of such a thermal object was not so successful. That thermal objects emit light had been long known. Since light was known to be waves of electromagnetism, physicists hoped to describe this emission via classical laws. This became known as the black body problem. Since the equipartition theorem worked so well in describing the vibrational modes of the thermal object itself, it was natural to assume that it would perform equally well in describing the radiative emission of such objects. But a problem quickly arose: if each mode received an equal partition of energy, the short wavelength modes would consume all the energy. This became clear when plotting the Rayleigh–Jeans law which, while correctly predicting the intensity of long wavelength emissions, predicted infinite total energy as the intensity diverges to infinity for short wavelengths. This became known as the ultraviolet catastrophe.
In 1900, Max Planck hypothesized that the frequency of light emitted by the black body depended on the frequency of the oscillator that emitted it, and the energy of these oscillators increased linearly with frequency (according to his constant h, where E = hν). This was not an unsound proposal considering that macroscopic oscillators operate similarly: when studying five simple harmonic oscillators of equal amplitude but different frequency, the oscillator with the highest frequency possesses the highest energy (though this relationship is not linear like Planck’s). By demanding that high-frequency light must be emitted by an oscillator of equal frequency, and further requiring that this oscillator occupy higher energy than one of a lesser frequency, Planck avoided any catastrophe; giving an equal partition to high-frequency oscillators produced successively fewer oscillators and less emitted light. And as in the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, the low-frequency, low-energy oscillators were suppressed by the onslaught of thermal jiggling from higher energy oscillators, which necessarily increased their energy and frequency.
The most revolutionary aspect of Planck’s treatment of the black body is that it inherently relies on an integer number of oscillators in thermal equilibrium with the electromagnetic field. These oscillators give their entire energy to the electromagnetic field, creating a quantum of light, as often as they are excited by the electromagnetic field, absorbing a quantum of light and beginning to oscillate at the corresponding frequency. Planck had intentionally created an atomic theory of the black body, but had unintentionally generated an atomic theory of light, where the black body never generates quanta of light at a given frequency with an energy less than hν. However, once realizing that he had quantized the electromagnetic field, he denounced particles of light as a limitation of his approximation, not a property of reality.
While Planck had solved the ultraviolet catastrophe by using atoms and a quantized electromagnetic field, most contemporary physicists agreed that Planck’s “light quanta” represented only flaws in his model. A more-complete derivation of black body radiation would yield a fully continuous and ‘wave-like’ electromagnetic field with no quantization. However, in 1905 Albert Einstein took Planck’s black body model to produce his solution to another outstanding problem of the day: the photoelectric effect, wherein electrons are emitted from atoms when they absorb energy from light. Since their discovery eight years previously, electrons had been studied in physics laboratories worldwide.
In 1902 Philipp Lenard discovered that the energy of these ejected electrons did not depend on the intensity of the incoming light, but instead on its frequency. So if one shines a little low-frequency light upon a metal, a few low energy electrons are ejected. If one now shines a very intense beam of low-frequency light upon the same metal, a whole slew of electrons are ejected; however they possess the same low energy, there are merely more of them. The more light there is, the more electrons are ejected. Whereas in order to get high energy electrons, one must illuminate the metal with high-frequency light. Like blackbody radiation, this was at odds with a theory invoking continuous transfer of energy between radiation and matter. However, it can still be explained using a fully classical description of light, as long as matter is quantum mechanical in nature.
If one used Planck’s energy quanta, and demanded that electromagnetic radiation at a given frequency could only transfer energy to matter in integer multiples of an energy quantum hν, then the photoelectric effect could be explained very simply. Low-frequency light only ejects low-energy electrons because each electron is excited by the absorption of a single photon. Increasing the intensity of the low-frequency light (increasing the number of photons) only increases the number of excited electrons, not their energy, because the energy of each photon remains low. Only by increasing the frequency of the light, and thus increasing the energy of the photons, can one eject electrons with higher energy. Thus, using Planck’s constant h to determine the energy of the photons based upon their frequency, the energy of ejected electrons should also increase linearly with frequency; the gradient of the line being Planck’s constant. These results were not confirmed until 1915, when Robert Andrews Millikan, who had previously determined the charge of the electron, produced experimental results in perfect accord with Einstein’s predictions. While the energy of ejected electrons reflected Planck’s constant, the existence of photons was not explicitly proven until the discovery of the photon antibunching effect, of which a modern experiment can be performed in undergraduate-level labs. This phenomenon could only be explained via photons, and not through any semi-classical theory (which could alternatively explain the photoelectric effect). When Einstein received his Nobel Prize in 1921, it was not for his more difficult and mathematically laborious special and general relativity, but for the simple, yet totally revolutionary, suggestion of quantized light. Einstein’s “light quanta” would not be called photons until 1925, but even in 1905 they represented the quintessential example of wave-particle duality. Electromagnetic radiation propagates following linear wave equations, but can only be emitted or absorbed as discrete elements, thus acting as a wave and a particle simultaneously.
In 1905, Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photoelectric effect, a hitherto troubling experiment that the wave theory of light seemed incapable of explaining. He did so by postulating the existence of photons, quanta of light energy with particulate qualities.
In the photoelectric effect, it was observed that shining a light on certain metals would lead to an electric current in a circuit. Presumably, the light was knocking electrons out of the metal, causing current to flow. However, using the case of potassium as an example, it was also observed that while a dim blue light was enough to cause a current, even the strongest, brightest red light available with the technology of the time caused no current at all. According to the classical theory of light and matter, the strength or amplitude of a light wave was in proportion to its brightness: a bright light should have been easily strong enough to create a large current. Yet, oddly, this was not so.
Einstein explained this conundrum by postulating that the electrons can receive energy from electromagnetic field only in discrete portions (quanta that were called photons): an amount of energy E that was related to the frequency f of the light by
where h is Planck’s constant (6.626 × 10−34 J seconds). Only photons of a high enough frequency (above a certain threshold value) could knock an electron free. For example, photons of blue light had sufficient energy to free an electron from the metal, but photons of red light did not. One photon of light above the threshold frequency could release only one electron; the higher the frequency of a photon, the higher the kinetic energy of the emitted electron, but no amount of light (using technology available at the time) below the threshold frequency could release an electron. To “violate” this law would require extremely high-intensity lasers which had not yet been invented. Intensity-dependent phenomena have now been studied in detail with such lasers.
Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.
In 1924, Louis-Victor de Broglie formulated the de Broglie hypothesis, claiming that all matter, not just light, has a wave-like nature; he related wavelength (denoted as λ) usa soccer goalie, and momentum (denoted as p):
This is a generalization of Einstein’s equation above, since the momentum of a photon is given by p =
and the wavelength (in a vacuum) by λ =
 that the Afshar experiment (2007) shows that it is possible to simultaneously observe both wave and particle properties of photons. This claim is, however, rejected by other scientists.
At least one scientist proposes that the duality can be replaced by a “wave-only” view. In his book Collective Electrodynamics: Quantum Foundations of Electromagnetism (2000), Carver Mead purports to analyze the behavior of electrons and photons purely in terms of electron wave functions, and attributes the apparent particle-like behavior to quantization effects and eigenstates. According to reviewer David Haddon:
Mead has cut the Gordian knot of quantum complementarity. He claims that atoms, with their neutrons, protons, and electrons, are not particles at all but pure waves of matter. Mead cites as the gross evidence of the exclusively wave nature of both light and matter the discovery between 1933 and 1996 of ten examples of pure wave phenomena, including the ubiquitous laser of CD players, the self-propagating electrical currents of superconductors, and the Bose–Einstein condensate of atoms.
Albert Einstein, who, in his search for a Unified Field Theory, did not accept wave-particle duality, wrote:
This double nature of radiation (and of material corpuscles)…has been interpreted by quantum-mechanics in an ingenious and amazingly successful fashion. This interpretation…appears to me as only a temporary way out…
The many-worlds interpretation (MWI) is sometimes presented as a waves-only theory, including by its originator, Hugh Everett who referred to MWI as “the wave interpretation”.
The Three Wave Hypothesis of R. Horodecki relates the particle to wave. The hypothesis implies that a massive particle is an intrinsically spatially as well as temporally extended wave phenomenon by a nonlinear law.
Still in the days of the old quantum theory, a pre-quantum-mechanical version of wave–particle duality was pioneered by William Duane, and developed by others including Alfred Landé. Duane explained diffraction of x-rays by a crystal in terms solely of their particle aspect. The deflection of the trajectory of each diffracted photon was explained as due to quantized momentum transfer from the spatially regular structure of the diffracting crystal.
It has been argued that there are never exact particles or waves, but only some compromise or intermediate between them. For this reason, in 1928 Arthur Eddington coined the name “wavicle” to describe the objects although it is not regularly used today. One consideration is that zero-dimensional mathematical points cannot be observed. Another is that the formal representation of such points, the Dirac delta function is unphysical, because it cannot be normalized. Parallel arguments apply to pure wave states. Roger Penrose states:
“Such ‘position states’ are idealized wavefunctions in the opposite sense from the momentum states. Whereas the momentum states are infinitely spread out, the position states are infinitely concentrated. Neither is normalizable […].”
Relational quantum mechanics is developed which regards the detection event as establishing a relationship between the quantized field and the detector. The inherent ambiguity associated with applying Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and thus wave–particle duality is subsequently avoided.
Although it is difficult to draw a line separating wave–particle duality from the rest of quantum mechanics, it is nevertheless possible to list some applications of this basic idea.
Elizabeth Egan Gillies (* 26. Juli 1993 in Haworth, New Jersey) ist eine US-amerikanische Schauspielerin, Sängerin und Tänzerin.
Gillies besuchte die Haworth Public School in ihrer Heimatstadt Haworth, New Jersey. Danach ging sie auf die Northern Valley Regional High School at Demarest in Demarest. Sie hat einen drei Jahre jüngeren Bruder.
Gillies ist gegen zahlreiche Lebensmittel sowie Gluten allergisch und deshalb Veganerin.
Gillies stand bereits im Alter von 3 Jahren für Werbespots vor der Kamera. Seit dem Jahr 1995 drehte sie Werbeclips für Kaugummis und Handys. In den 90er Jahren war sie das erste Mal in einer Nickelodeon-Serie zu sehen, 1995 erhielt sie die Rolle der 4-jährigen Melissa in der Serie 6 to 8 Frozen Zone. 2007 bekam Gillies Rollen in den Serien The Black Donnellys und Locker 514, durch die ihre Karriere einen Schub erhielt. 2008 erhielt Gillies eine Rolle in dem Film Harold. Im Sommer 2008 wurde sie für das Musical 13 gecastet, in dem sie die beiden Lieder Opportunity und It Can’t Be True sang. Dort lernte sie auch ihre Schauspielkollegin Ariana Grande kennen, die später ebenfalls eine Hauptrolle bei Victorious spielte. Das Musical war bis zu seinem Ende am 4. Januar 2009 ein großer Erfolg. 2009 gewann Gillies für ihre Leistung im Musical 13 den National Youth Theatre Award in der Kategorie „Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Musical“. Nach dem Ende des Musicals spielte sie in dem Film Die Glamour-Clique – Cinderellas Rache die Rolle der Shelby Wexler.
Von 2010 bis 2013 war Gillies in der US-amerikanischen Fernsehsendung Victorious zu sehen. In der von Dan Schneider entwickelten Serie spielte sie die Rolle der Jadelyn „Jade“ West. Wie alle anderen Hauptdarsteller von Victorious spielte sie bei dem ebenfalls von Dan Schneider produzierten Crossover zwischen Victorious und iCarly mit. In der Victorious-Folge Das hässliche Entlein sang Gillies zusammen mit Ariana Grande das Lied Give It Up. Das Lied wurde am 2 team soccer jerseys wholesale. August 2011, zusammen mit anderen Liedern der TV–Serie, auf dem Victorious–Soundtrack veröffentlicht. Im Jahr 2011 erhielt Gillies zusammen mit der Besetzung von Victorious eine Nominierung bei den Nickelodeon Kids’ Choice Awards in der Kategorie Beste Fernsehserie. Sie hatte an der Seite von Victoria Justice kurze Auftritte in den Musikvideos Freak the Freak Out, Beggin’ on Your Knees, All I Want Is Everything und Make it in America, die zur Fernsehserie produziert wurden.
Im Jahr 2011 nahm Gillies zusammen mit anderen Schauspielern bei einer Spezialausgabe der US-amerikanischen Quizsendung BrainSurge teil. Im selben Jahr spielte sie außerdem eine Gastrolle als Heather in der Fernsehserie Big Time Rush. Seit 2011 spricht sie Daphne in der Nickelodeon Animations-Fernsehserie Winx Club. 2012 nahm sie für diese Serie das Lied „We Are Believix“ auf, für welches auch ein Musikvideo mit Gillies gedreht wurde.
Gillies nimmt privat diverse Coverversionen bekannter Lieder, wie Wild Horses von The Rolling Stones, Jealous Guy von John Lennon oder Yoü and I von Lady Gaga auf und lädt diese anschließend auf YouTube hoch. Im Jahr 2012 coverte sie zusammen mit Max Schneider den Keane-Song Somewhere Only We Know.
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