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NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness

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The NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) is a type of spacecraft ion thruster called electrostatic ion thruster. It is a highly efficient low-thrust spacecraft propulsion running on electrical power generated by solar arrays. It uses high-voltage electrodes to accelerate ions with electrostatic forces.

The purpose of NSTAR program was to develop a xenon-fueled ion propulsion system for deep space missions. The NSTAR electrostatic ion thruster was developed at NASA’s Glenn Research Center and manufactured by Hughes, and Spectrum Astro, Inc. in the early 1990s. The feed system development was a collaborative effort between JPL and Moog Inc.

The ions are accelerated through two fine grids with roughly a 1300 V difference between them for 2.3 kW operation, with a thrust of 20-92 mN, a specific impulse of 1950-31000 N·s/kg and a total impulse capability of 2.65 x106 Ns. In 1996, the prototype engine endured 8000 hours of continuous operation in a vacuum chamber that simulates conditions of outer space. The results of the prototyping were used to define the design of flight hardware that was built for Deep Space 1 probe water in bpa free bottles. One of the challenges was developing a compact and light weight power processing unit that converts power from the solar arrays into the voltages needed by the engine.

The engine achieves a specific impulse of one to three thousand seconds safe glass water bottles. This is an order of magnitude higher than traditional space propulsion methods, resulting in a mass savings of approximately half best reusable glass water bottle. This leads to much lighter and less expensive launch vehicles. Although the engine produces just 92 millinewtons (0.331 ounce-force) thrust at maximum power (2,100W on DS1 mission), the craft achieved high speed because ion engines thrust continuously for long periods of time.

The NSTAR ion thruster was first used on the Deep Space 1 (DS1) spacecraft, launched on 24 October 1998. The Deep Space mission carried out a flyby of asteroid 9969 Braille and Comet Borrelly. It produced 2.3 kW and was the primary propulsion for the probe.

The second interplanetary mission using NSTAR engine was the Dawn spacecraft, with three redundant units with a 30 cm diameter each. Dawn is the first NASA exploratory mission to use ion propulsion to enter and leave more than one orbit.

NASA engineers state that NSTAR engines, in the 5-kilowatt and 0.04 pound-thrust range, are candidates for propelling spacecraft to Europa, Pluto, and other small bodies in deep space.


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Ópera (metropolitana di Madrid)

Home | Ópera (metropolitana di Madrid)


Ópera è una stazione delle linee 2, 5 e del Ramal della metropolitana di Madrid.

Si trova sotto alla Plaza de Isabel II, nel distretto Centro.

È la stazione di riferimento per i turisti diretti alla Plaza de Oriente, al Palacio Real e al Teatro Real.

Dietro a una parete dei binari della linea 2 si trova la Fuente de los Caños del Peral, reperto archeologico che fu scoperto durante dei lavori nel 1991.

La stazione fu inaugurata best reusable glass water bottle, per le linee 2 e R il 27 dicembre 1925 con il nome di “Isabel II”. I binari di queste due linee furono costruiti alla stessa profondità anche se quelli del Ramal avevano una lunghezza minore rispetto ai 60 m di quelli della linea 2 running waist bag. In seguito furono ampliati e portati a 60 m. Nel 1931 la stazione assunse l’attuale denominazione di Ópera.

Il 5 giugno 1968 furono aperti al pubblico i binari della linea 5, situati a maggiore profondità e con pensiline lunghe 90 m.

Tra il 2003 e il 2004 la stazione fu parzialmente ristrutturata ma i lavori più importanti terminarono l’11 marzo 2011. Fu costruito un nuovo vestibolo di 821 m² (quello precedente ne misurava 114) e furono installati nuovi ascensori che rendono la stazione completamente accessibile. Dopo questa riforma l’entrata della stazione fu spostata da una zona laterale al centro della piazza. Inoltre, si integrarono nella stazione i resti archeologici scoperti durante i lavori.

Vestibolo Plaza de Isabel II

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South African general election, 1981

Home | South African general election, 1981

P. W. Botha
National Party

P. W. Botha
National Party

During the 1981 South African general election, held on 29 April of that year, the National Party, under the leadership of P. W football jerseys for sale. Botha since 1978 cheap dress socks, lost some support, but achieved another landslide victory, winning 131 of 165 directly-elected seats in the House of Assembly.

Its membership now included 12 additional members, of whom four were appointed by the State President and eight were elected by the directly elected members.

The elected additional members were chosen by means of proportional representation, by means of the single transferable vote.

Meanwhile drill team uniforms, the Progressive Federal Party – led since 1979 by Frederik van Zyl Slabbert, an Afrikaner – increased its representation to 26 seats, thereby consolidating its position as the official opposition.

The Herstigte Nasionale Party (HNP), which represented right-wing Afrikaner conservatives, received 14.1% of the popular vote but did not gain any seats.

The 1981 election was the first since the abolition of the Senate that year, the House of Assembly had become the sole chamber of Parliament best reusable glass water bottle. It was also the last to be held under the then 1961 Constitution, under which South Africa had become a republic, while retaining a Westminster-style parliamentary system.

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