On 21 June 1998, French policeman Daniel Nivel was assaulted in the city of Lens by German football hooligans during the 1998 FIFA World Cup
. He fell into a six-week coma and was left with permanent disability.
One of his attackers was arrested at the scene and tried in France, receiving a jail sentence of five years and being barred from returning to the country. Four others were tried in Essen in their own country and found guilty, with one being jailed for ten years for attempted murder and the others receiving shorter sentences for serious bodily harm.
The attack was deemed a national shame by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl. In the years since, Nivel has been a guest of honour at Germany football matches and a foundation in his name has opposed football hooliganism.
After Germany’s 2–2 draw with FR Yugoslavia at the Stade Félix Bollaert, 43-year-old Nivel was one of three policemen attacked by hooligans. He was struck by advertising boards and when he was lying on the floor without his helmet, was stamped and kicked in the head. Nivel fell into a coma until 4 August, and was left with permanent disability in his speech and movement.
Chancellor of Germany Helmut Kohl called the attack a national disgrace and requested that the team withdraw from the tournament.
Markus Warnecke, a Braunschweig native in his late 20s, was arrested at the scene of the crime. He was a bouncer and tattoo artist, and an alleged far-right activist. Warnecke was tried in nearby Saint-Omer; the prosecution considered him the ringleader, while the defence claimed that photographic element refuted that. Facing a maximum sentence of 15 years, Warnecke was jailed for five in May 2001. He was banned from all sports venues for five years and made persona non grata in France for ten.
In April 1999, the trial began for four defendants in Essen. Andre Zawacki, Frank Renger and Tobias Reifschlaeger all confessed, while Christopher Rauch used his right to remain silent. Nivel did not attend the start of the trial due to his speech problems. In November, all four were found guilty: Zawacki was sentenced to ten years in prison for attempted murder; Reifschlaeger electric meat tenderizer, Renger and Rauch were convicted of serious bodily harm. They were jailed for six, five, and three-and-a-half years respectively.
In 2000, the German Football Association (DFB) set up the Daniel Nivel Foundation to confront football hooliganism and support victims thermos bottle with straw.
On 14 June 2006, Nivel was the DFB’s guest of honour for the 2006 FIFA World Cup game between that country and Poland at the Westfalenstadion in Dortmund female football uniforms; he was seated next to Chancellor Angela Merkel. The game was also marred by hooliganism. Nivel was also invited to Germany’s match against Ukraine at UEFA Euro 2016, in Lille near Lens.
Daniel M. Tani (born February 1, 1961) is an American engineer and a NASA astronaut. Although born in Ridley Park, Pennsylvania, he considers Lombard xl football socks, Illinois, to be his hometown. With Peggy Whitson, Tani conducted the 100th spacewalk on the International Space Station.
Tani graduated from Glenbard East High School, Lombard, Illinois, in 1979, and received a Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees in mechanical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1984, and 1988, respectively. He was a Brother of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity.
After Tani received his bachelor’s degree from MIT natural steak tenderizer, he worked at Hughes Aircraft Corporation in El Segundo, California as a design engineer in the Space and Communications group. In 1986, he returned to MIT and received his master’s degree in mechanical engineering in 1988, specializing in human factors and group decision making. After graduation, Tani worked for Bolt, Beranek and Newman in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the experimental psychology department. In 1988, Tani joined Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) in Dulles, Virginia, initially as a senior structures engineer, and then as the mission operations manager for the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS). In that role, he served as the TOS flight operations lead, working with NASA/JSC mission control in support of the deployment of the ACTS/TOS payload during the STS-51 mission in September 1993. Tani then moved to the Pegasus program at OSC as the launch operations manager. In that capacity, he served as lead for the development of procedures and constraints for the launching of the air-launched Pegasus unmanned rocket. Tani also was responsible for defining, training, and leading the team of engineers who worked in the launch and control room.
Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in April 1996, Tani reported to the Johnson Space Center in August 1996. After completing two years of training and evaluation, he qualified for flight assignment as a mission specialist in 1998. He performed technical duties in the Astronaut Office Computer Support Branch, and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Branch, and has served as a Crew Support Astronaut for Expedition 2.
Tani flew on STS-108 in 2001, and logged over 11 days in space, including over 4 EVA hours in one space walk. STS-108 Endeavour (December 5–17, 2001) was the 12th shuttle flight to visit the International Space Station. During the mission, Tani served as Mission Specialist 2. Endeavour’s crew delivered the Expedition 4 crew to the station, and returned the Expedition 3 crew. The crew transferred over three tons of supplies, logistics and science experiments from the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module to the station. Tani performed a spacewalk to wrap thermal blankets around the ISS Solar Array Gimbals
. STS-108 was accomplished in 185 Earth orbits, traveling 4.8 million miles in 283 hours and 36 minutes, including an EVA of 4 hours and 12 minutes.
In May 2002, Tani served as an aquanaut on the NEEMO 2 (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) crew aboard the Aquarius underwater laboratory. Tani and his fellow crew members lived and worked for one week beneath the Atlantic Ocean.
Following his return from STS-108, Tani was assigned as the Expedition 9 backup flight engineer. Tani was eventually assigned to Expedition 16 as flight engineer, and launched to the station aboard STS-120 on October 23, 2007. Tani completed one EVA with the crew of STS-120, and four additional spacewalks during his increment aboard the space station. Originally scheduled to return to Earth with the crew of STS-122 in December, the mission was delayed due to engine cutoff sensor issues during countdown best running belt. Instead, it launched on February 7. Tani returned on STS-122 on February 20, 2008.
Dan Tani has performed five spacewalks or EVAs to date.
Tani left NASA in August 2012 to become the Vice President of Mission and Cargo Operations in the Advanced Programs Group of Orbital Sciences Corporation in Dulles, Virginia.
In August of 2016, Tani left Orbital Sciences Corporation (now Orbital ATK) to join the High School Faculty at the American School in Japan, where he teaches science, engineering and design.
Member, Japanese American Citizens League, Alpha Delta Phi fraternity, and Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association.
Tani is married to the former Jane Egan from Cork, Ireland, and enjoys golf, flying, running, tennis, music, cooking. Tani threw out the ceremonial first pitch and sang the “Take Me Out to the Ball Game” at Wrigley Field on August 20, 2008.
His parents, Rose and Henry N. Tani, are both deceased. During World War II, they and their children were relocated from their California farm to the Topaz War Relocation Center in Utah as part of the Japanese American internment program of the U.S. government. They lived for several months in converted horse stables at the Tanforan Racetrack. On December 19, 2007, during Tani’s stay on the International Space Station as a member of Expedition 16, he was informed by the ground team that his mother had been killed when a freight train collided with her car.
This article incorporates from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Carpenters for Christmas was conceived to counteract a series of church bombings and arson attacks in Mississippi during and following the Mississippi Freedom Summer in 1964. During the summer of 1964, the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) organized a nationally supported campaign that challenged the racial segregation of the Mississippi Democratic Party and the state’s systematic exclusion of black citizens from voting. Churches played a central role in this campaign, often housing Freedom Schools, serving as freedom election polling places, and serving as the venue for mass meetings. To counter this central role, segregationist forces began a campaign of terror against civil rights workers and the churches that gave them support.
Over the course of Freedom Summer, there were at least three murders, approximately 70 bombings or burnings, over 80 beatings, and over 1,000 arrests of civil rights activists. The COFO incident report, a single-spaced document that offered brief daily summaries, was over ten pages long.
In the fall of 1964, numerous churches in Mississippi and elsewhere in the South were burned, bombed or otherwise attacked. Students from Oberlin College and others organized a church rebuilding project to create national support for southern churches. They chose the Antioch Missionary Baptist Church in Blue Mountain, Mississippi to highlight the problem of church destruction, and in December 1964, with national media attention, the church was rebuilt with volunteer labor and donated materials. The church burned right after Fannie Lou Hamer gave a speech there.
The project received widespread publicity in national media, and contributed to broader recognition of need to afford protection to southern churches that supported the civil rights movement.
During the 1960s Holly Springs, and Rust College, was a locus for civil rights activities in , Benton, and Tippah Counties. Partly that resulted from the active support for civil rights from the leadership and students at Rust College, one of the oldest African American liberal arts colleges in the United States. Long before white civil rights workers arrived, Rust College Students, began to challenge segregation of public accommodations. A COFO office and Freedom School was ultimately located near the college on 100 Rust Avenue and North Memphis Street and was referred to as Freedom House. It was the headquarters for the voter registration movement in north Mississippi and the headquarters of the local Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Civil Rights workers stationed at Freedom House began to link to self-contained movements in Marshall and the nearby counties of and Tippah.
African American residents of Tippah County were already involved in civil rights activities long before Freedom Summer. , was an NAACP activist. A letter from the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission to the Tippah County Attorney, August 23, 1962 writes:
Please furnish this commission with any general information you may have on the above subject (Hazel Foster) regarding activities with the NAACP, if any, or other subversive organizations.
A letter from the Sovereignty Commission on the same date seeks advice from the local circuit judge as to whether Mrs. Foster has registered to vote and inquires of any connection to the NAACP.
Frustrated by the slow pace of change in Mississippi, civil rights groups active in Mississippi decided to implement a “program .
.which will involve the massive participation of Americans dedicated to the elimination of racial oppression
.” . Freedom Summer would involve the creation of 25 freedom schools, establishment of community centers, and what the project described as “a massive legal offensive against the official tyranny of the State of Mississippi.” In the Spring of 1964, law enforcement and the Sovereignty Commission were gearing up for possible Freedom Summer activities. Sovereignty Commission investigators began to visit with local officials throughout Mississippi to prepare. A MSC investigation report describes a visit to Tippah and Alcorn Counties:
The officers in Alcorn as well as Tippah County appreciated very much the work this department is doing with officers. They also are very much concerned about the expected mass demonstrations which the various civil rights organizations are threatening this state with this summer….The investigative staff of the Sovereignty Commission has now visited and had discussions with city and county officials in every county in the State of Mississippi since the middle of January, 1964, these four counties being the last ones. All county and city officials are expecting trouble in this state this summer and those whom I visited are relying heavily on the assistance of this department if and when the demonstrations begin in their county.
A major goal of Freedom Summer, including the work performed out of Holly Springs, was to break through obstacles to black voting in Mississippi. Historians have focused upon efforts to participate in the Presidential electoral process. But just as important were efforts to afford black citizens equal participation in local elections. For that reason, Holly Springs COFO workers in Northern Mississippi Counties worked to enhance black participation in Agricultural Stabilization Committee elections. ASC participation was crucial to small farmers, because of the cotton allotment program.
Als Klettergipfel bezeichnet man in den Klettergebieten Sächsische Schweiz
, Zittauer Gebirge sowie den Klettergebieten in angrenzenden Mittelgebirgen freistehende Felsen
, die nur durch Kletterei mindestens der Schwierigkeit I auf der UIAA-Skala oder durch Sprung von benachbarten Felsen oder Massiven zu erreichen sind. Im Regelfall wird dafür eine Schartenhöhe von mindestens 10 m als erforderlich angesehen. In der Sächsischen Schweiz verlangen die Sächsischen Kletterregeln allerdings keine Mindesthöhe, sondern definieren Klettergipfel lediglich als „freistehende Felsen, die […] nur durch Kletterei oder durch Überfall, Übertritt oder Sprung von benachbarten Felsen zu ersteigen sind […].“ Weitere Voraussetzung ist die Anerkennung durch die zuständige Fachkommission des SBB sowie die zuständige Naturschutzbehörde. Für Wanderer sind diese anerkannten Gipfel oft am vorhandenen Gipfelbuch und der Abseilöse zu erkennen.
In anderen Klettergebieten, so etwa in der Böhmischen Schweiz gibt es jedoch auch Ausnahmen. Dort brauchen Klettergipfel nur über eine bedeutende Wand zu verfügen – die niedrigste Seite darf dabei weniger als 10
;m messen, muss aber zumindest 6 m hoch sein.
The George Cross (GC) is the second highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry “not in the face of the enemy” to members of the British armed forces and to British civilians. It has always been able to be awarded posthumously. It was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians including police, emergency services and merchant seamen although no British civilian has received the award since 1976. Many of the awards have been personally presented by the British monarch to both recipients and in the case of posthumous awards to next of kin. These investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace.
The George Cross was instituted on 24 September 1940 by King George VI. At this time, during the height of the Blitz, there was a strong desire to reward the many acts of civilian courage. The existing awards open to civilians were not judged suitable to meet the new situation, therefore it was decided that the George Cross and the George Medal would be instituted to recognise both civilian gallantry in the face of enemy action and brave deeds more generally.
Announcing the new award, the King said:
In order that they should be worthily and promptly recognised, I have decided to create, at once, a new mark of honour for men and women in all walks of civilian life. I propose to give my name to this new distinction, which will consist of the George Cross, which will rank next to the Victoria Cross, and the George Medal for wider distribution.
The medal was designed by Percy Metcalfe. The Warrant for the GC (along with that of the GM), dated 24 September 1940, was published in the London Gazette on 31 January 1941.
The GC replaced the Empire Gallantry Medal (EGM); all holders of the EGM were instructed to exchange their medals for a GC, a substitution of awards unprecedented in the history of British decorations. This substitution policy ignored holders of the Albert Medal (AM) and the Edward Medal (EM), awards which both took precedence over the EGM. The anomaly was rectified in 1971, when the surviving recipients of the AM and the EM became George Cross recipients and were invited to exchange their medal for the George Cross. Of the 64 holders of the Albert Medal and 68 holders of the Edward Medal eligible to exchange, 49 and 59 respectively took up the option.
The GC, which may be awarded posthumously, is granted in recognition of:
acts of the greatest heroism or of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme danger.
The award is for civilians but also for military personnel whose actions would not normally be eligible to receive military awards, such as gallantry not in the face of the enemy. The Warrant states:
The Cross is intended primarily for civilians and award in Our military services is to be confined to actions for which purely military Honours are not normally granted.
The Cross shall be worn by recipients on the left breast suspended from a ribbon one and a quarter inches in width, of dark blue, that it shall be worn immediately after the Victoria Cross and in front of the Insignia of all British Orders of Chivalry.
Bars are awarded to the GC in recognition of the performance of further acts of bravery meriting the award, although none has yet been awarded. Recipients are entitled to the postnominal letters GC. In common with the Victoria Cross, a distinction peculiar to these two premier awards for bravery, in undress uniform or on occasions when the medal ribbon alone is worn, a miniature replica of the cross is affixed to the centre of the ribbon.
All GC awards are published in the London Gazette with the exception of the two collective bestowals.
Since its inception in 1940, the GC has been awarded 407 times, 405 to individuals and two collective awards to Malta and the Royal Ulster Constabulary. There have been 161 original awards including both collective awards and 245 exchange awards, 112 to Empire Gallantry Medal recipients, 65 to Albert Medal recipients and 68 to Edward Medal recipients. Of the 159 individuals who received original awards, 86 have been posthumous. In addition there were four posthumous recipients of the Empire Gallantry Medal whose awards were gazetted after the start of the Second World War and whose awards were also exchanged for the GC. All the other exchange recipients were living as of the date of the decisions for the exchanges handmade bracelets.
The Ministry of Defence announced on 18 March 2010 that Staff Sergeant Olaf Schmid was posthumously awarded the George Cross for making safe 70 improvised explosive devices in his time in Afghanistan. Staff Sergeant Kim Hughes was also awarded the George Cross for improvised explosive disposal efforts. Two other soldiers have been awarded the George Cross for actions carried out in the conflict in Afghanistan.
On 3 August 2015 the London Gazette announced the award of a George Cross to Colour Sergeant Kevin Howard Haberfield of the Royal Marines, the award to be dated 22 November 2005. There was no citation.
The Iraq conflict saw two military recipients of the George Cross, Peter Norton and Christopher Finney.
The most recent civilian recipient was Sergeant Stewart Guthrie of the New Zealand Police, who received his award posthumously for his part in apprehending a gunman in the 1990 Aramoana massacre in New Zealand.
In its history, the GC has been awarded directly to only four women:
Apart from the four women who received the GC directly, a number of women have received awards that were later superseded by the GC and exchanged for it (e.g. Doreen Ashburnham-Ruffner who in September 1916 received the Albert Medal for Lifesaving for saving her young cousin from a cougar attack. She exchanged her initial medal for the George Cross in 1971).
The George Cross has, on the express instruction of the Sovereign, been awarded twice on a collective basis, to the island of Malta and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC).
The GC was awarded to the island of Malta in a letter dated 15 April 1942 from King George VI to the island’s Governor Lieutenant-General Sir William Dobbie:
To honour her brave people
, I award the George Cross to the Island Fortress of Malta to bear witness to a heroism and devotion that will long be famous in history.
The Governor answered:
By God’s help Malta will not weaken but will endure until victory is won.
The cross and the messages are today found in the War Museum in Fort Saint Elmo, Valletta. The fortitude of the population under sustained enemy air raids and a naval blockade which almost saw them starved into submission, won widespread admiration in Britain and other Allied nations. Some historians argue that the award was in fact a propaganda gesture to justify the huge losses sustained by Britain to prevent Malta from capitulating as Singapore had done in the Battle of Singapore.
The George Cross is woven into the Flag of Malta and can be seen wherever the flag is flown.
The GC was awarded to the RUC in 1999 by Queen Elizabeth II following the advice of her Government. The Queen presented the George Cross to the organisation at Hillsborough Castle, County Down. The citation published by Buckingham Palace on 23 November 1999 stated:
For the past 30 years, the Royal Ulster Constabulary has been the bulwark against, and the main target of, a sustained and brutal terrorism campaign. The Force has suffered heavily in protecting both sides of the community from danger—302 officers have been killed in the line of duty and thousands more injured, many seriously. Many officers have been ostracised by their own community and others have been forced to leave their homes in the face of threats to them and their families. As Northern Ireland reaches a turning point in its political development this award is made to recognise the collective courage and dedication to duty of all of those who have served in the Royal Ulster Constabulary and who have accepted the danger and stress this has brought to them and to their families.
Two years later, on 4 November 2001, as a result of the Patten Report, the RUC became the Police Service of Northern Ireland incorporating the Royal Ulster Constabulary GC.
There have been 10 GCs awarded to Canadians including those by substitution for awards superseded by the GC. The recipients comprised nine men and one woman. The GC is no longer awarded to Canadians by the Queen of Canada, who awards the Canadian Cross of Valour instead.
The George Cross was awarded to 22 Australians, 11 to the Australian forces and 11 to civilians. It is the highest decoration of the Australian Honours System after the British Victoria Cross and the Victoria Cross for Australia. Although Australia established the Cross of Valour within the Australian Honours System in 1975 ‘for acts of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme peril’ it was not until 1992 that Australia officially ceased recommending British honours. During the period 1975 to 1992, the last George Cross to an Australian was awarded in 1978.
Of the 22 awards, 14 were direct awards and eight were Empire Gallantry Medal (two) and Albert Medal (six) exchange awards. Four awards were to the Royal Australian Naval Volunteer Reserve who served in the extremely dangerous role of mine disposal during the Second World War. Courage of a different sort was displayed by two prisoners of war who endured terrible suffering without flinching, with Private Horace William Madden dying of privations while assisting fellow prisoners, and Captain Lionel Colin Matthews eventually being executed by his captors for building a resistance network. The last Australian to be awarded the GC (in 1978), and the most recent surviving civilian recipient, was Constable Michael Kenneth Pratt of the Victoria Police, Melbourne, for arresting two armed bank robbers in June 1976.
A memorial to Australian recipients, George Cross Park, was opened in the Capital, Canberra, on 4 April 2001 by the Governor General of Australia
, Sir William Deane.
Holders of the George Cross or Victoria Cross are entitled to an annuity, the amount of which is determined by the awarding government. Since 2015, the annuity paid by the British government is £10,000 per year . In Canada under the Gallantry Awards Order, members of the Canadian Forces, or people who joined the British forces before 31 March 1949 while domiciled in Canada or Newfoundland, receive $3
,000 per year. For Australian holders, the amount is determined by clause 11A1.2 of the Australian Defence Force Pay and Conditions, and as of January 2005 is $250 per year.
The George Cross Committee considers cases of military and civilian gallantry. The Committee has no formal terms of reference.
Since 1943, in accordance with the George Cross (Restriction of Use) Ordinance, it is unlawful in Malta to use the George Cross, an imitation of it or the words George Cross for the purposes of trade or business without the Prime Minister’s authorisation.
The fictional detective inspector William E. “Jack” Frost in the novels of R. D. Wingfield is a recipient of the George Cross, which sometimes serves as a plot element in allowing him to get away with actions that would otherwise have landed him in trouble.
Charles (Karl, Graf von) Dennim, the protagonist in Geoffrey Household’s 1960 thriller Watcher in the Shadows, was awarded the George Cross for espionage work during the Second World War, including undercover service as a Gestapo officer at the Buchenwald concentration camp. He refused to accept the award on the basis that “one does not defile a decoration”.
Ray Davies makes reference to George Cross recipients in the Kinks song “The Village Green Preservation Society” with the lyric “God save the George Cross and all those who were awarded them”.
Hugh Grant’s character, Alexander Waverly, in The Man From U.N.C.L.E. (2015) is a recipient of the George Cross.
Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) • Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB/DCB) • Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB)
Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) • Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG/DCMG) • Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG)
/ Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE) • / Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE/DBE) • / Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) • / Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) • / Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)
Companion of the Imperial Service Order (ISO)
Companion of the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH)
Hereditary peer • Life peer • Baronet • Knight Bachelor
Victoria Cross (VC) • Distinguished Service Order (DSO) • Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM) • Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (CGM) • Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (Flying) (CGM) • Military Cross (MC) • Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) • Military Medal (MM) • Distinguished Flying Medal (DFM) • Mentioned in dispatches
Air Force Cross (AFC) • Air Force Medal (AFM) • Queen’s Commendation for Brave Conduct
Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) • Distinguished Service Medal (DSM)
Queen’s Police Medal for Distinguished Service (QPM) • Queen’s Fire Service Medal for Distinguished Service (QFSM)
George Cross (GC) • Albert Medal, First Class (AM) • Albert Medal, First Class (Sea) (AM) • Albert Medal, Second Class (AM) • Albert Medal, Second Class (Sea) (AM) • George Medal (GM) • Queen’s Police Medal for Gallantry (QPM) • Queen’s Fire Service Medal for Gallantry (QFSM) • Sea Gallantry Medal (SGM) • Queen’s Gallantry Medal (QGM) • Edward Medal (EM) • Queen’s Commendation for Brave Conduct
Member of the Royal Red Cross (RRC) • Associate of the Royal Red Cross (ARRC)
/ British Empire Medal (BEM) • Queen’s Commendation for Valuable Service
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