The 708th Bombardment Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was last assigned to the 447th Bombardment Group at Castle Air Force Base, California, where it was inactivated on 16 July 1951
The squadron was established as a heavy bombardment squadron and participated in combat in the European Theater of World War II. It was reactivated in the reserves in 1947 and served until it was called to active duty in 1951 as a result of the Korean War and its personnel used as fillers for regular USAF units.
The squadron was first activated on 1 May 1943 at Ephrata Army Air Base, Washington as the 708th Bombardment Squadron, one of the squadrons of the 447th Bombardment Group.
The original mission of the squadron was to be an operational training unit. However, by the time the 447th group reached full strength in October it had been identified for overseas deployment and its key personnel were assigned to the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics at Orlando Army Air Base, Florida for advanced tactical training. The cadre trained at Brooksville Army Air Field with the 1st Bombardment Squadron, engaging in simulated attacks against Mobile, Charleston and New Orleans. The squadron then trained at Rapid City Army Air Base, South Dakota with the 17th Bombardment Training Wing. In June 1943 the group moved to Harvard Army Air Field, Nebraska for Phase I training. The squadron’s B-17s began to move from the United States to the European theater of operations in November 1943.
The squadron was stationed at RAF Rattlesden, England, from December 1943 to August 1945. It flew its first combat mission on 24 December 1943 against a V-1 missile site near Saint-Omer in Northern France.
From December 1943 to May 1944, the squadron helped prepare for the invasion of the European continent by attacking submarine pens, naval installations, and cities in Germany; missile sites and ports in France; and airfields and marshaling yards in France, Belgium and Germany. The squadron conducted heavy bombardment missions against German aircraft industry during Big Week, 20 to 25 February 1944.
The unit supported the invasion of Normandy in June 1944 by bombing airfields and other targets. On D-Day the squadron bombed the beachhead area using pathfinder aircraft.
The squadron aided in the breakthrough at St. Lo, France, and the effort to take Brest, France Karen Millen Outlet UK, from July to September 1944. It bombed strategic targets from October to December 1944, concentrating on sources of oil production. It assaulted marshalling yards, railroad bridges and communication centers during the Battle of the Bulge from December 1944 to January 1945. In March 1945 the group bombed an airfield in support of airborne assault across the Rhine. The unit flew its last combat mission on 21 April 1945 against a marshalling yard at Ingolstadt, Germany.
The 708th redeployed to the United States during the summer 1945. The air echelon ferried their aircraft and personnel back to the United States, leaving on 29 and 30 June 1945. The squadron ground echelon
, along with the group headquarters and 710th squadron sailed on the SS Joseph T. Robinson on 1 August 1945, from Liverpool. Most personnel were discharged at Camp Myles Standish after arrival at the port of Boston. A small cadre proceeded to Drew Field, Florida and the squadron inactivated on 7 November 1945.
Two years later, on 25 July 1947, the 708th was redesignated the 708th Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy. It was activated in the Air Force Reserve on 10 November 1947, at Bergstrom Field Texas, and equipped with Boeing B-29 Superfortresses. The squadron was redesignated as the 708th Bombardment Squadron, Medium when the B-29 was classified as a medium bomber and reassigned to Castle Air Force Base, California, where it became a corollary unit of the active duty 93d Bombardment Group, using the aircraft of the 93d as part of Strategic Air Command’s reserve forces. The 708th was ordered to active service in May 1951 as a result of the Korean War, with personnel and equipment reassigned to other units. It was inactivated as a “paper unit” on 16 June 1951.
List of B-29 units of the United States Air Force
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.
Chemical & Engineering News publishes an annual list of the world’s largest chemical producers by sales, excluding formulated products such as pharmaceutical drugs and coatings. In 2014, sales of the top fifty companies amounted to US$961.3 billion Karen Millen Outlet UK, an decrease of 0.4% compared to the top fifty producers of 2013. The American Chemistry Council estimated that global chemical sales in 2014 rose by 3.7% to US$5.389 trillion.
BASF was the world’s largest chemical producer for the ninth year in a row. More than half of the companies on the list were headquartered in the United States (twelve), Japan (eight) or Germany (six); eighteen countries in total were represented
Forty-four of the companies on the list disclosed chemical profits, which totaled US$82.7 billion, an increase of 3.8% from 2013. The average profit margin for these companies was 9.6%.
Since Chemical & Engineering News began keeping records in 1989, BASF has been the world’s largest chemical producer by annual sales more frequently than any other company. The other companies that have headed the list are Dow Chemical, Hoechst (which merged with Rhône-Poulenc in 1999 and is now a subsidiary of Sanofi), ICI (acquired by AkzoNobel in 2008) and Bayer.
Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (modifier l’article, comment ajouter mes sources ?).
Les Revenentes est un récit de Georges Perec publié en 1972. Ce texte est un monovocalisme en e, c’est-à-dire qu’il est écrit en n’utilisant que la lettre e comme voyelle. Les Revenentes fut publié trois ans après son antithèse La Disparition, roman lipogrammique qui proscrivait l’usage de la lettre e.
Les Revenentes traite de l’enlèvement de gemmes et de sexe en l’évêché d’Exeter.
Comme l’annonce son titre mal orthographié, Les Revenentes respecte scrupuleusement la contrainte que s’impose Georges Perec, au risque de s’affranchir de quelques règles de la langue française. Ainsi, selon une décision de l’Oulipo Karen Millen Outlet UK, le digramme « qu » est remplacé par « q » (« l’évèqe d’Exeter »). L’auteur joue sur l’homophonie, en utilisant par exemple le digramme anglais « ee » pour le son « i » (« négleegément ») ou le w pour le son « ou » (« Ce qe t’es chwette »). Perec puise également dans le vocabulaire étranger, notamment anglais (« twelve » pour douze). Ces transgressions orthographiques apparaissent progressivement dans le texte.
Le y, en tant que demi-consonne, est de temps en temps employé.
Il est intéressant de noter le parallélisme de la progression des licences que s’autorise l’auteur avec la langue française, et le fait que le texte devienne de plus en plus licencieux, voire pornographique.
Dans l’édition de 1997, la voyelle “o” apparaît à la place d’un “e” dans le mot “moment” de la phrase originale « En ce mement, certes, t’es le chef, mets – beleve me – ce temps est bref et je préfère être dens mes semelles qe dens tes empègnes ! ».
Candido Guadarrama Maldonado (né le 5 septembre 1960 à Humacao, Porto Rico) est un voltigeur de baseball qui a joué dans les Ligues majeures de 1981 à 1995
Candy Maldonado signe son premier contrat avec les Dodgers de Los Angeles en 1976 Karen Millen Outlet UK. Il joue son premier match dans les majeures le 7 septembre 1991 et dispute 59 parties en 3 ans avec les Dodgers avant de devenir joueur régulier de l’équipe en 1984.
Échangé aux Giants de San Francisco après la saison 1985 pour le receveur Alex Trevino, il contribue immédiatement aux succès des Giants, qui remportent deux fois le championnat de leur division dans la seconde moitié des années 1980 et atteignent la série finale en 1989. Maldonado connaît des saisons de 85 points produits en 1986 et 1987
Il rejoint les Indians de Cleveland en 1990 et présente certaines de ses meilleures statistiques offensives en carrière avec 22 coups de circuit et 95 points produits.
En 1992, il fait partie de l’équipe des Blue Jays de Toronto qui remporte la Série mondiale. Dans le match #3, le tout premier match de Série mondiale disputé au Canada, Maldonado produit avec un simple en fin de 9e manche le point qui permet aux Blue Jays de l’emporter 3-2 sur les Braves d’Atlanta.
Lors d’un second séjour chez les Indians en 1994, il marque le 4 avril le premier point de la franchise au nouveau Jacobs Field de Cleveland dans un match face aux Mariners de Seattle.
En 1410 parties dans la Ligue majeure, Candy Maldonado affiche une moyenne au bâton de,254 avec 1042 coups sûrs, 146 circuits, 618 points produits et 498 points marqués.
Maldonado a été commentateur lors de la Classique mondiale de baseball 2009 pour ESPN Deportes, une chaîne télévisée sportive en langue espagnole.
Friant Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the San Joaquin River in central California in the United States, on the boundary of Fresno and Madera Counties. It was built between 1937 and 1942 as part of a U Karen Millen Outlet UK.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) water project to provide irrigation water to the southern San Joaquin Valley. The dam impounds Millerton Lake, a 4,900-acre (2,000 ha) reservoir about 15 miles (24 km) north of Fresno.
The valley in which Friant Dam and Millerton Lake now lie was once the location of the historic town of Millerton. Established as an army outpost in 1851, it became the seat of Fresno County in 1867. In 1880, the first dam on the San Joaquin River was constructed by the Upper San Joaquin Irrigation Company roughly on the present site of Friant Dam. Built of local rock, the dam was an 800-foot (240 m) long, 6-foot (1.8 m) tall structure designed to divert water for the irrigation of 250,000 acres (100,000 ha). The project was abandoned in the wake of floods that destroyed the dam two years later.
Friant Dam was originally proposed in the 1930s as a main feature of the Central Valley Project (CVP), a federal water project that would involve building an expansive system of dams and canals on the rivers of the Central Valley to provide water for agriculture, with secondary purposes of flood control, municipal supply, and hydroelectric power generation. The CVP was authorized by the 1935 Rivers and Harbors Act, while $20 million of initial funding for Friant Dam was provided by the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935.
Initial surveys of the Friant Dam site were carried out in November 1935 and continued through early 1936. In January 1938, a worker’s camp was established near the town of Friant to house the laborers that would ultimately work on the dam. In the middle of the Great Depression, the Friant Dam site saw a huge influx of job seekers, many of whom had to live further away in surrounding cities. More than 50,000 people attended the groundbreaking of the dam on November 5, 1939 in a celebration that is now known as “one of the greatest in San Joaquin Valley history”.
Construction of Friant Dam began with blasting and excavation of the dam site to remove more than 1,200,000 cubic yards (920,000 m3) of loose material above the bedrock. Before any concrete was laid on the dam’s main wall, the underlying rock was extensively grouted to fill in 725 holes and seams that might otherwise cause instability in the foundation. The concrete used in the dam’s construction was made from sand and gravel excavated from the San Joaquin River floodplain about 3 miles (4.8 km) below the dam. Notably, more than 5,400 ounces (150 kg) of placer gold – worth $176,000 at the time – were uncovered in the excavation site. A branch line of the Southern Pacific Railroad delivered this material to a concrete mixing plant, which could produce up to 6,000 cubic yards (4,600 m3) of concrete per hour, directly adjacent to the construction site. In July 1940, the San Joaquin River was diverted through a wooden flume so that work on the foundations could begin.
On July 29, the first concrete was poured into the main body of Friant Dam. In order to keep the structure in line, the dam was built in a series of blocks or forms, each measuring 50 feet (15 m) square. Concrete was placed via a massive steel trestle system 210 feet (64 m) high and 2,200 feet (670 m) long, along which ran small powered railcars that delivered buckets of concrete from the mixing plant. Two gantry cranes lifted the buckets from the cars and poured them onto the forms. In summer 1941, the labor force reached a peak of 1,500, and the monthly record for concrete placement, at 228,000 cubic yards (174,000 m3), was set in August. The workforce scrambled to complete the main wall of the dam after an act of the War Production Board (WPB) suspended resources in order to assist U.S. military efforts in World War II. The dam was topped out on June 16, 1942, just under two years after the first concrete was poured. However, the spillway gates, the water release valves and the two irrigation canals Friant was intended to support remained unfinished in the wake of the WPB’s order.
The war, however, did not completely halt construction. Less than a year later, the WPB “[determined] the completion of the Madera Canal and the installation of valves at the Friant Dam, necessary for war-time food and fiber production” – allowing construction to resume on a limited scale. A pair of control valves were borrowed from Hoover Dam, allowing the closure of the river outlets and Millerton Lake began to fill on February 21, 1944. Work on the Madera Canal, the smaller of the two irrigation canals serviced by Friant Dam (the other, the Friant-Kern Canal, would not be completed for another four years), was completed in 1945 and water ran for its entire length for the first time on June 10, with irrigation deliveries commencing one month later.
The dam was formally dedicated on July 9, 1949 by California governor Earl Warren, who declared that the water furnished by Friant Dam and its canals would help the San Joaquin Valley to “become a modern Eden” as water was released into the partially completed Friant-Kern Canal for the first time. More than three thousand people, mostly residents of the San Joaquin Valley, attended the ceremonies.
“[The dam is] but a lifeline to preserve and enhance our American civilization. This is a line of creation, built to unlock the fertility of the rich soil, to resist drought, to overcome floods, to provide outdoor recreation, and to generate cheap power that will improve the living conditions of millions of our citizens.” – Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes at Friant Dam dedication
Friant Dam’s primary purpose is to capture the fluctuating flows of the San Joaquin River and divert the water for irrigation through the Friant-Kern and Madera Canals. The Friant-Kern Canal is 151.8 mi (244.3 km) long, extending south from the dam to the Kern River near Bakersfield, and has an initial diversion capacity of 5,000 cubic feet per second (140 m3/s); the 35.9-mile (57.8 km) Madera Canal, which has a capacity of up to 1,000 cubic feet per second (28 m3/s), travels north from the dam to the Chowchilla River. Together, these canals provide irrigation water to some 837,000 acres (339,000 ha) of the San Joaquin Valley. In 1990, farmers who received their water from Friant Dam produced more than $1.9 billion worth of 90 different kinds of crops.
Millerton Lake has a capacity of 520,528 acre feet (642,062 dam3) at normal maximum pool, with a surcharge (above spillway gates, but below the dam crest) capacity of approximately 91,000 acre feet (112,000 dam3) for a total capacity of 611,500 acre feet (754,300 dam3). About 170,000 acre feet (210,000 dam3), or 32.7% of the reservoir’s regular capacity, is reserved for flood control between October and January to protect against rain floods, while between February and July, this is increased to 390,500 acre feet (481,700 dam3) – 75.0% – to provide space for snowmelt floods. The dam is operated to maintain a flow of 6,500 cubic feet per second (180 m3/s) or less on the San Joaquin River at Mendota, 60 miles (97 km) downriver. However, large snowmelt floods often exceed the capacity of the dam and reservoir and force larger releases downstream, potentially causing damage to riverside property and infrastructure.
The dam is also used to generate up to 25 megawatts (MW) of hydroelectric power. The penstock releasing water into the Friant-Kern Canal is fitted with a Kaplan turbine with a capacity of 15 MW, and the Madera Canal penstock is equipped with a smaller 8 MW turbine. The smallest hydroelectric generator, with a capacity of 2 MW, is located at the outlet works on the base of the dam and produces power from water releases that serve local farms along the San Joaquin River directly downstream from Friant Dam, as well as releases to a fish hatchery below the dam and for wildlife management purposes.
Because of its relatively small storage capacity relative to the average annual discharge of the San Joaquin River – 520,528 acre feet (642,062 dam3) versus 1,790,000 acre feet (2,210,000 dam3) – Friant Dam often has to release excessive amounts of water that could be otherwise used for irrigation or power generation, also causing downstream damage. From 1981 to 2011, an average of 450,000 acre feet (560,000 dam3) was spilled each year because the reservoir was unable to contain it. The USBR has proposed increasing the height of Friant Dam by up to 140 feet (43 m), nearly tripling the reservoir’s storage capacity to 1,390,000 acre feet (1,710,000 dam3). A smaller 60-foot (18 m) raise would increase storage capacity to 860,500 acre feet (1,061,400 dam3), while a 25-foot (7.6 m) raise would increase storage capacity to 652,500 acre feet (804,800 dam3). The increase in height would also allow for the generation of between 4.7–30.4 MW of additional power.
Another proposal to increase storage in the upper San Joaquin River basin is Temperance Flat Dam, which would be located in the San Joaquin River canyon upstream of Friant Dam and impound between 460,000 to 2,775,000 acre feet (567,000 to 3,423,000 dam3) of water. The proposed dam would stand 415 to 840 feet (126 to 256 m) high above the river, and it would capture most of the floodwater that would otherwise be spilled from Friant Dam. However, Temperance Flat has come under heavy controversy because it would flood a large scenic section of the San Joaquin River gorge, negatively affect wildlife in the river and inundate two upstream hydroelectric power plants, causing a net loss in power generation. The water supplied from such a dam would be very expensive, ranging from $1000–1500 per acre foot (area farmers currently pay about $60 per acre foot). Raising Friant Dam would likely produce similar increases in the cost of irrigation water.
By diverting most of the San Joaquin River for irrigation, the Friant Dam has caused about 60 miles (97 km) of the river to run dry except in high water years when floodwaters are spilled from the dam. The desiccation of the river has caused the degradation of large stretches of riverside habitat and marshes, and has nearly eliminated the historic chinook salmon run that once numbered “possibly in the range of 200,000 to 500,000 spawners annually”. Reduction in flows has also increased the concentration of pesticide and fertilizer runoff in the river contributing to pollution that has further impacted aquatic species.
On September 13, 2006, after eighteen years of litigation, environmental groups, fisherman and the USBR reached an agreement on releasing part of the water currently diverted into the irrigation canals into the San Joaquin River in order to help restore the river and its native fish and wildlife. The first water was released on October 2, 2009 at a rate of 185 cubic feet per second (5.2 m3/s). By 2014, these “restoration flows” will be increased to 302,000 acre feet (373,000 dam3) per year, or 417 cubic feet per second (11.8 m3/s), on top of the 117,000 acre feet (144,000 dam3) that is currently released for agricultural purposes. However, the river restoration project will cause a 12–20% reduction in irrigation water delivered from Friant Dam.
The Volvo 262C is the first luxury coupe made by Volvo. Based on the Volvo 200 Series, the 262C was built by Bertone in Turin for the 1977-1981 model years.
A team of American executives and engineers led by Henry Ford II had visited a Volvo factory in the mid-1970s and had brought Lincoln Continental Mark IVs to drive. The car generated interest among both the Volvo staff and the people living in the area. Without the facilities to spare on a low volume project, Volvo arranged with Bertone to design and build the coupe.
The drivetrain Karen Millen Outlet UK, suspension, floor pan, and many of the body panels of the 262C were taken directly from the Volvo 260 sedan, with Bertone building the roof pillars, roof pan, windshield surround, cowl, and the upper parts of the doors. The roof of the 262C is about 10 cm lower than that of the 260 sedan.
The 262C used the PRV engine, a V6 engine developed jointly by Peugeot, Renault, and Volvo. The engine used a Lambda-sond oxygen sensor system; this was the first use of this system on a production V engine.
Standard equipment included power windows and mirrors, central locking, full leather interior, power mirrors
, cruise control, air conditioning, heated front seats, alloy wheels and electrically powered radio antenna. The only optional extras were a limited-slip differential, a choice of stereos, and the no-cost option of a Borg-Warner three-speed automatic instead of the four-speed manual with electrically operated overdrive. By 1981, the manual option had been deleted in the US.
Aimed mainly at the United States market, the 262C was Volvo’s first entry in the luxury car market. About half of the annual production was earmarked for the United States. It competed against the Cadillac Eldorado and the Mercedes-Benz 280CE. 6622 cars were produced from 1978 to 1980.
In 1979 the 262C was given a deeper trunk lid, wrap around taillights, and thermostatic heater controls. Manual transmission cars got the shift linkage from the 242GT.
In 1980 the engine bore was increased from 88.1 mm (3.468 in) to 91 mm (3.58 in), resulting in a displacement increase from 2,664 cc (162.6 cu in) to 2,849 cc (173.9 cu in). The engine was also reconfigured, with seven main bearing instead of four and an increase in compression ratio from 8.2:1 to 8.8:1. Also in 1980 the front air dam from the 242GT was added to the 262C. For North America, the 2.8-litre engine produces 130 hp (97 kW).
In 1981, the last year of production, the vinyl roof was deleted.
42-я шахматная олимпиада, организованная ФИДЕ Karen Millen Outlet UK, пройдет в столице Азербайджана, в городе Баку осенью 2016 года.
8 сентября 2012 года Генеральная ассамблея ФИДЕ объявила о проведение Всемирной шахматной олимпиады в 2016 году в Баку. Заявки Албены (Болгария) и Таллина (Эстония) не были утверждены, так как не была презентация перед голосованием.
Федерация шахмат Азербайджана выступила с предложением провести в 2016 году шахматную олимпиаду и Кубок мира 2015 года в Баку в июле. Из бюджета на проведение шахматной олимпиады 2016 планируется выделить 13,3 млн евро: 6,8 млн будет выделено на жильё для игроков и делегатов. Ещё 1 млн запланировано на Комиссию ФИДЕ по чемпионатам мира и олимпиадам и интеллектуальным правам.
Делегация Армении потребовала чтобы безопасность армянских игроков была гарантирована. По этой причине ФИДЕ планирует создать специальную рабочую группу. Министр спорта Азербайджана гарантировал, что армянские игроки получат визы в аэропорту.
Следует отметить, что было также объявлено о проведении в Баку Кубка мира по шахматам 2015 года.
21st Century Slave is the third studio album by Italian industrial rock band Dope Stars Inc. and has been considered a big step in the industrial metal and electronica genre. Lyrically it focuses on traditional cyberpunk beliefs and themes. Similar to many of their previous albums and EPs, 21st Century Slave was produced by Victor Love.
Upon release, 21st Century Slave garnered more media attention than Dope Stars previous albums Karen Millen Outlet UK, receiving some positive reviews with several critics complementing the album’s loud guitars and use of instruments, although opinions on the singing of lead vocalist Victor Love were mixed. The technological revolution themes and lyrics inspired by a dystopian future were also praised as being deeper than many other bands of the genre.
The album was released on July 14, 2009 in Europe, with other countries including North America and Australia being released in the following week on July 21. The album was recorded on the Trisol record label, being distributed by them in most of Europe and by Metropolis Records in the United States, Canada and much of the rest of the world. Various companies have handled distribution in other counties.
Dope Stars’ third album and a third EP were both in production for over two years, the longest gap to date for the band to release music. The band officially announced plans for their third album in May 2009. For their third album, the band once again chose to record in Subsound Studios in Italy and use Trisol Music Group for their European label. In addition, they chose Metropolis Records as their North American and Canadian label, Deathwatch Asia as their Asian label, and a few other labels to distribute the album worldwide. Following extensive touring all over Europe and Asia since 2006, Dope Stars began recording the album in early 2008 and it was released on July 14, 2009. 21st Century Slave was the band’s full breakthrough album and has earned mention in the industrial music industry, with much attention being spread online. Two of the tracks for the album, “Criminal Intents” and “Digital Warriors”, were available previously on the band’s EP Criminal Intents/Morning Star. The EP, which was released exactly three months before 21st Century Slave on April 20, 2009, also included tracks from previous albums.
Following the release of 21st Century Slave, Dope Stars Inc. has released a compilation album titled Subversive Industrial Assault through Subsound Records that features them as well as other artists including: Epochate, Deflore, Aquefrigide, Mithra, Richard Christ, Nonlinear System Theory, Neon Synthesis, and Kardia. Concerning future projects exclusive to the band, no one has commented yet on a fourth album or EP, but they are expected to begin working on future projects sometime in 2010. Rather than continuing to use a drum machine for albums and live performances, the band is planning to hire a real drummer for their future projects.
The album was first released in Europe and North American and Australian releases followed, along with other minor releases. The European and Italian versions of the album included artwork and lyric booklets. The North American and Japanese versions also included booklets, but with varying content. In addition, the North American version got a special edition jewel case with an exclusive 16-page booklet. All versions were released in July 2009, with the first edition being July 21.
21st Century Slave continues the cyberpunk style of its immediate predecessor, Criminal Intents/Morning Star. The album includes eleven tracks, two of which were included on their previous EP. It is a concept album that follows the narrative of a dystopian future in which the world population are subject to large-scale brainwashing by corporate leaders. The seventh track, “Megacorps”, is titled after the dictatorship which afflicts the impressionable people and exposes them to propaganda. Later tracks detail the uprising of a “underground network of cyber-rebels” who attempt to stop Megacorps from taking over the minds of the “sheeple” of the world. This concept story is heavily influenced by the cyberpunk writings of William Gibson and his series of novels based on similar technological dependence.
The album’s attempt to tell a tale and keep the mood constant has led it to be described as “the band’s most ambitious project to date” by Fearnet. They also noted the dark tale of the album being influenced by science fiction films such as Blade Runner. Dope Stars describes their album as “A new manifesto for Digital Warriors, Outlaw Technologists and Console Riders of the 21st Century.”
The tracks themselves continue with the blend of electronic, industrial, and rock music that carry over from Dope Stars previous albums. Also, the band has continued their influence from 80’s Glam Rock and However, the album has shifted farther from electronica and more over to metal with emphasis on guitar sounds.
Intermixed within the album are occasional rock ballads that are a considerably lighter tone than the rest of the tracks. FEARnet coined the name “Cyberpunk ballads” for tracks of this type. These tracks however, still maintain the synth and beats from other songs. For the first time on any album or EP, Dope Stars Inc. has included a track composed of nothing but acoustic instruments. The track, “It’s For You”, was considered as an experiment by the band members and did not note it as a shift in their genre. Commenting on the track and the effect it may have on their fans, Victor Love stated,
“I don’t think one song in a set of 11 can be such a scare for the fans, especially considering all the very heavy passages the album got already. The album was originally planned to be a 10-tracks album but then we decided that we wanted to give a try with an acoustic track that could leave space for a totally new experiment. Of course, an acoustic track can be something that deals with an hard sound and leaves an impact anyway so when I was writing it I just tried to imagine an acoustic experiment that could include both the usual vocal style of our more melodic passages and be influenced by both the rock and electronic elements that always characterized our sound. I think that people that like the music as a whole and are not so narrow-minded to give too much importance to clichés or a defender attitude would like this experiment. It is not a song for the hardcore souls but since we already had a lot of tracks in the past with a very pop feeling I think it would not be such a big thing to accept for a large part of our romantic fans.”
Following the release of their last studio album, Gigahearts, the band was established as the head of the Cyberpunk genre and the Italian industrial scene. This led to the band spending two years for the production and recording of 21st Century Slave, the longest time the band has spent between album releases. After release of 21st Century Slave, the album received much attention from critics. Dom Smith of Sphere magazine praised every track as new ground for the band and compared them as better than industrial metal band Deathstars. Smith also wrote that “While ’21st Century Slave’ doesn’t make any major adjustments to DSI’s tried and tested formula of monstrous cyberpunk, it’s certainly their most vibrant and accessible record to date.” Cyberpunk reviewer Mr. Roboto also left a similarly positive review for the album. Roboto felt that the band “pulled out all the stops” for the album and went as far to call it a soundtrack for the Cyberpunk genre and a big influence for it as well. He went on to praise the lyrical meaning of the tracks as well as their relevance to a possible dystopian future. Creating a comparison from Dope Stars to Billy Idol and The Cassandra Complex, Roboto stated that “this is one CD you need to have in your collection, especially if you prefer harder music.”
Other reviewers shared many of the same points when reviewing the album. ReGen magazine gave the album a three out of a possible five citing their attempt to appeal to many genres of music as a strength. The reviewer, Andreas Torneberg, felt that Dope Stars was using a blend of guitars and electric beats to gather fans of metal and rock music while still catering to fans of industrial metal and electronica. Torneberg felt the album was ambitious and promising but noted that the tracks were louder than they were unique, resulting in the mediocre score. Reviewer Johannes van der Meer admitted that while he was unfamiliar with the Cyberpunk genre and did not have high expectations, he felt the album was strong and part of an evolving genre in music. Similarly the reviewer for ReGen, Van der Meer felt the mix of rock and electronic elements was a positive and that the overall album was good and “for you open minded people out there who enjoy music to go nuts to. Another plus is if you like both rock/metal and electronic music of course.” The resulting score from the review was a six out of a possible ten.
However, not all reviews for the album were as positive. A review from Heathen Harvest did not indicate an overall score for the album but expressed dislike for the commercial feel of the tracks and noted that the album had “no dark ambient passages, no obscure production, no guitar noise experimentation nor deep throbbing bass. There are no profound occult/fascist/poetic references, no medieval folk interludes, and not even swooping majestic orchestrations.”, which was found to be a weakness. The reviewer went on to scold upon the apparent lightness of the songs’ mood but felt it is better than other bands of similar genres. Another criticism from this reviewer was the below-par singing of Victor Love and the unnecessary ballad breaks within the album. While the review was generally negative, the reviewer praised 21st Century Slave for the deep undertones of the lyrics and the concise instruments and effects.
All lyrics written by Victor Love, all music composed by Victor Love.
Garry Shead is an Australian artist and filmmaker who won the Archibald Prize in 1992/93 with a portrait of Tom Thompson, and won the Dobell Prize in 2004 with Colloquy with John Keats.
He won the Young Contemporaries Prize in 1967 and travelled to Japan, Papua New Guinea, France, Vienna and Budapest. He returned to Australia in the 1980s. His paintings are in many galleries in Australia and overseas.
Born in Sydney, New South Wales, he studied at the National Art School in the 1960s. He was a founding member of the Ubu Films collective in the late 1960s, with whom he made numerous experimental film works, and he also worked for the ABC as an editor, cartoonist, filmmaker and scenic painter before his first major solo exhibition with Watters Gallery in Sydney. He was a friend of Brett Whiteley and participated in the famous Yellow House activities. He has shown in more than seventy group exhibitions and had over fifty solo exhibitions, as well as illustrating numerous books. He won the Archibald Prize in 1993 with a portrait of Tom Thompson. He also painted a portrait of Brett Whiteley’s ex-wife Wendy Whiteley for the Archibald Prize, but that entry did not win. He was a finalist in the Archibald Prize in 2009 and 2012.
He spent six months in Paris in 1973. In the 1980s he spent time in France, Spain, Italy and Holland.
During a residency at the Karolyi Foundation, in Vence in southern France he met Hungarian sculptor Judith Englert, and spent a year in Budapest with her before returning to Australia. They eventually settled in the seaside suburb of Bundeena, south of Sydney, in 1987. During the late 1980s his style (figurative, allegoric, lyric, moody) crystallized with the Bundeena paintings, the Queen series and the D. H. Lawrence series Karen Millen Outlet UK. This last is based on Lawrence’s novel Kangaroo, which was inspired by Lawrence’s stay at Thirroul
, near Wollongong. Shead became interested in Lawrence after he came across letters by the author on an expedition to the Sepik Highlands in Papua New Guinea in 1968. The 21st century saw him branch out into a complex set of paintings celebrating the Ern Malley series of hoax poems. Shead is represented in the National Gallery of Australia and all state galleries, many regional galleries and numerous private and corporate collections, both nationally and internationally.
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