Month: February 2018

Renato Sacerdoti

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Renato Sacerdoti (Roma, 20 ottobre 1891 – Roma, 13 ottobre 1971) è stato un dirigente sportivo italiano. Detto «Il Banchiere di Testaccio», è tra i fondatori dell’Associazione Sportiva Roma di cui è il secondo presidente dopo Italo Foschi. Con i suoi 13 anni al vertice della società (tra il 1928-1935 e, successivamente, tra il 1952 ed il 1958) è colui che ha presieduto la società giallorossa per più tempo dopo Franco Sensi dry pak waterproof bags.

Sacerdoti salì agli onori delle cronache per il ruolo fondamentale che ebbe nella trattativa tra le società Alba running pouch for phone, Fortitudo e Lazio che nel 1927 avrebbe portato alla nascita dell’AS Roma; la difficile trattativa sulla fusione aveva nei debiti che le tre società volevano vedersi riconosciuti un ostacolo insormontabile. L’ostacolo venne superato allorché i facoltosi dirigenti del Roman vennero convocati da Italo Foschi in sostituzione dei dirigenti della Lazio. Renato Sacerdoti e Pietro Crostarosa (tramite le banche delle quali erano referenti) avrebbero infatti garantito le somme di denaro necessarie per colmare i debiti ed immesso nel nascituro club il denaro necessario per rinforzare la nuova squadra.

Subentrato già nel 1928 ad Italo Foschi (come commissario straordinario) fu sotto la sua presidenza che la Roma affrontò l’ultimo campionato prima dell’avvento del girone unico. I risultati furono incoraggianti: la squadra conquistò il terzo posto (a pari merito con l’Alessandria) nella Divisione Nazionale, risultato che, se confrontato ai risultati degli anni precedenti ed a quanto ottenuto dalle altre rappresentanti del sud, fu certamente un successo per il neo presidente.

Fu sotto la sua presidenza che venne costruito Campo Testaccio, lo storico impianto che la squadra giallorossa utilizzerà negli incontri casalinghi durante gli anni trenta. Diversamente da quanto ci si sarebbe potuti aspettare, la costruzione del nuovo impianto sportivo, causò rimostranze nei confronti di Sacerdoti e l’accusa di aver sprecato ingenti somme di denaro: le sue appassionate difese sono ancora presenti negli archivi della società di Trigoria.

Queste vicissitudini non inficiarono il rapporto tra la tifoseria e il presidente: Renato Sacerdoti sin dai primi anni ’30 costruì una squadra solida, gettando le basi anche per i suoi successori tanto che l’affetto per il presidente da parte dei tifosi veniva “cantato” nel finale dell’inno di quegli anni:

« …Fin che Sacerdoti ce sta accanto / porteremo sempre er vanto / Roma nostra brillerà. »

La Roma degli anni ’30 rimarrà nel ricordo dei tifosi come la più forte squadra mai avuta dalla società per quasi mezzo secolo, finché negli anni ’80 con Dino Viola l’AS Roma vivrà nuovamente un decennio da protagonista.

Sacerdoti operò nel calciomercato, con acquisti e cessioni che fecero notizia: tra le prime operazioni vi fu quella che permise di riportare Fulvio Bernardini a Roma, così come di rilievo fu l’acquisto dei tre oriundi: Scopelli, Stagnaro e Enrico Guaita, quest’ultimo capace di 29 marcature in un torneo a 16 quadre nel 34-35. Sul lato cessioni fecero scalpore e crearono dissapori con la tifoseria quelle dell’attaccante Rodolfo Volk e del capitano Attilio Ferraris: quest’ultimo, capitano della squadra e nazionale, si accasò, clamorosamente, alla Lazio.

Nell’estate del 1935 avvenne uno dei più clamorosi eventi della storia romanista: la fuga dei tre oriundi acquistati appena due anni prima. La fuga dei tre avvenne subito dopo che Sacerdoti riuscì a portare a Roma i due terzini della nazionale di calcio (campione del mondo in carica): Allemandi e Monzeglio, ridimensionando in positivo le ambizioni della squadra da molti data come pretendente al titolo nazionale. Nonostante tali vicende, la Roma riuscì a mantenere i pronostici arrivando ad un solo punto dal Bologna, ma per Sacerdoti fu l’inizio di un periodo durissimo sul piano umano: pur essendo stato un fascista della prima ora e avendo partecipato alla marcia su Roma, fu accusato di esportazione illecita di valuta nell’acquisto dei tre giocatori e mandato al confino.

Il motivo di tali accuse può essere ricondotto alle sue origini ebraiche che lo rendevano un personaggio inviso al regime fascista che pochi anni dopo avrebbe promulgato le cosiddette leggi razziali. Durante la guerra Sacerdoti riuscì a scampare alle deportazioni nei lager nazisti travestendosi da prete e rifugiandosi in un convento.

Terminata la Seconda guerra mondiale Renato Sacerdoti rientrò nell’organico della società sportiva, dapprima come eminenza grigia glass bottles for water storage, poi, nel 1949, come vicepresidente.

In questi anni entrò in polemica[senza fonte] con Fulvio Bernardini e Tommaso Maestrelli: furono loro a pagare per i risultati della squadra nel dopoguerra. Questa scelta si rivelò avventata per la società: i due, infatti, riscossero in seguito grandi successi con club quali Fiorentina e Lazio, successi che condussero tali club ai primi titoli nazionali della loro storia, mentre la Roma finì in Serie B al termine della stagione 1951 dopo essere passata indenne per lo scandalo arbitrale noto come “il caso Pera”, dal nome del direttore di gara coinvolto che nel 1950 avrebbe favorito la Roma in uno scontro diretto per la salvezza al termine del campionato.

Con la Roma nella serie cadetta, Renato Sacerdoti venne richiamato alla presidenza della società. Il «Banchiere di Testaccio» aveva un suo progetto per riportare la società a livelli più alti, progetto che ebbe subito successo con l’immediato ritorno in Serie A, ottenuta in una stagione nella quale solo la prima classificata aveva accesso alla promozione diretta.

I suoi successivi anni di presidenza restituirono solidità alla società, che, eccezion fatta per un 14º posto, rimase stabilmente tra le prime sei compagini del campionato ottenendo un brillante terzo posto nel 1955 (poi secondo per squalifica dell’Udinese) che valse alla Roma anche il ritorno in una competizione Europea. La risalita della Roma dopo un decennio buio fu frutto anche di acquisti eccellenti quali Alcides Ghiggia e István Nyers, mentre i rapporti con gli allenatori non furono brillanti come testimoniano i numerosi avvicendamenti susseguitisi in quegli anni.

Renato Sacerdoti contribuì alla fondazione del primo coordinamento dei club di tifosi organizzati: i circoli “Attilio Ferraris”. Parallelamente a quello della fondazione di tali circoli fu anche ventilato un progetto per portare Sacerdoti in Senato, come rappresentante non di partiti politici ma di una tifoseria.

Lasciata la presidenza nel 1958 Sacerdoti restò nella dirigenza giallorossa fino al 1967. Morì il 13 ottobre del 1971 a 79 anni.

Low-background steel

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Low-background steel is any steel produced prior to the detonation of the first atomic bombs in the 1940s and 1950s women’s soccer t shirts. With the Trinity test and the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, and then subsequent nuclear weapons testing during the early years of the Cold War, background radiation levels increased across the world

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. Modern steel is contaminated with radionuclides because its production uses atmospheric air. Low background steel is so called because it does not suffer from such nuclear contamination. This steel is used in devices that require the highest sensitivity for detecting radionuclides.

The primary source of low-background steel is ships that were constructed before the Trinity test, most famously the scuttled German World War I battleships in Scapa Flow head shaver.

From 1856 until the mid 20th century, steel was produced in the Bessemer process where air was forced into Bessemer converters converting the pig iron into steel. By the mid-20th century, many steelworks had switched to the BOS process which uses pure oxygen instead of air. However as both processes use atmospheric gas, they are susceptible to contamination from airborne particulates. Present-day air carries radionuclides, such as cobalt-60, which are deposited into the steel giving it a weak radioactive signature.

World anthropogenic background radiation levels peaked at 0.15 mSv/yr above natural levels in 1963, the year that the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was enacted. Since then, anthropogenic background radiation has decreased exponentially to 0.005 mSv/yr above natural levels.

However, cobalt-60 still contaminates modern steel because it has been recycled through the scrap metal supply chain.

Devices that require low-background steel include:

As these devices detect radiation emitted from radioactive materials drinking bottles for toddlers, they require an extremely low radiation environment for optimal sensitivity. Low background counting chambers are made from low-background steel with extremely heavy radiation shielding. They are used to detect the minutest nuclear emissions.

What Would You Do? (City High song)

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February 27, 2001 (2001-02-27)

What Would You Do?” is a song recorded by American R&B/hip hop trio City High. It was released in February 2001 as the lead single from their self-titled debut album. The track was originally included on the 1999 soundtrack of the film Life, starring Eddie Murphy and Martin Lawrence. It is the group’s most successful single to date, peaking at number 8 on the U.S metal water bottle safety. Billboard Hot 100, number one on Billboard Hot Rap Singles, number 13 on Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks and number three in the United Kingdom. The version of the song on their debut album differs from that included on the Life soundtrack as it features a sample of Dr. Dre’s hit song

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, “The Next Episode”. The Life soundtrack version of the song does not contain the Dr. Dre sample bpa free thermos flask.

The song, along with the accompanying music video best running waist belts, is a motivational anthem for single parents dealing with poverty and especially for single mothers who feel forced into prostitution due to the need to support their children.

Leuchtspurmunition

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Leuchtspurmunition oder Glimmspurmunition ist Patronenmunition, bei der das Projektil an seinem Ende einen pyrotechnischen Satz enthält (im Bild rot dargestellt) best ball shaver. Beim Abfeuern des Geschosses wird der pyrotechnische Satz durch die Treibladung entzündet. Die Leuchtspur erlaubt dem Schützen die optische Verfolgung der Flugbahn des Geschosses.

Leuchtspurmunition wird dort eingesetzt, wo der Schütze die Flugbahn beobachten soll. Dies ist bei der Flugabwehr zur Beobachtung und Korrektur der Trefferlage der Fall, aber auch bei Maschinengewehren, wo Leuchtspurmunition in einem bestimmten Verhältnis zu normaler Munition eingesetzt wird, um dem Schützen mehr Orientierung über die Lage der Trefferfläche zu geben. Des Weiteren trägt die Kanonenmunition von Kampfpanzern oft eine Leuchtspur, um äußere Einflüsse auf die Flugbahn der Geschosse wie beispielsweise lokale Luftströmungen beobachten zu können, die mit eigenen Sensoren nicht festgestellt werden können. Es kann auch eine Leuchtspur-Patrone als eine der letzten Patronen im Magazin eingesetzt werden, um dem Schützen anzuzeigen, dass die Munition zu Ende geht. Ebenfalls hilft Leuchtspurmunition, die Schützen schneller auszubilden. Das Verhältnis zu regulärer Patronenmunition ist bei den Schießübungen der Bundeswehr 3 : 2. Das heißt, dass auf drei normale Patronen zwei mit Leuchtspur folgen.

Ein Nachteil von Leuchtspurmunition ist das grundsätzlich geringere Gewicht, das diese von normaler Munition unterscheidet und während des Fluges durch den abbrennenden pyrotechnischen Satz abnimmt, wodurch sich die Flugbahn im Verhältnis zu normaler Munition verändert. Leuchtspurmunition wird durch den pyrotechnischen Satz entzündet, was auch zu ungewollten Bränden (Felder, Wald) führen kann. Dieser Effekt kann jedoch auch absichtlich genutzt werden, um leicht entzündliche Stoffe (z. B. Benzin) durch Beschuss in Brand zu setzen.

Da die Leuchtspur nicht nur aus der Sichtrichtung des Schützen gesehen werden kann, verrät ein Schütze durch den Einsatz von Leuchtspurmunition seine Position zwar nicht an die Zielperson; Dritte können aber die Position des Schützen ausmachen, wenn sie (aus Sicht des Ziels) seitlich life glass water bottle, höher oder tiefer neben dem Schützen positioniert sind. Um dieses Risiko zu minimieren, können entweder Leuchtspursätze mit Verzögerung oder Glimmspursätze verwendet werden. Glimmspursätze haben im Unterschied zu Leuchtspursätzen nur geringe Lichtintensität und können dadurch nur aus Richtung der Schussabgabe beobachtet werden.

Der pyrotechnische Satz, der meist aus einem Gemisch aus PVC, Magnesiumpulver und Strontiumnitrat besteht, hinterlässt beim Abbrennen Rückstände, die den Lauf deutlich schneller verschleißen als herkömmliche Munition.

Zur Unterscheidung von gewöhnlicher Munition ist die Geschossspitze bei Leuchtspurmunition in der NATO rot lackiert.

Leuchtspurmunition ist in den meisten europäischen Ländern Kriegsmaterial und kann deshalb oft nur von Munitionssammlern mit entsprechenden Ausnahmegenehmigungen erworben werden. In Österreich ist Leuchtspurmunition im Kaliber .22 lr (Kleinkaliber), sowie Schrotmunition mit Leuchtsatz von der Kriegsmaterialverordnung ausgenommen.

Lubariket

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Lubariket eller kongedømmet Luba var et kongerike i Sentralafrika fra 1500-tallet til 1800-tallet. Det lå innen det som i dag er Den demokratiske republikken Kongo.

Opprinnelsen er fra før 1500-tallet helt nordøst i dagens Zambia eller sørøst i dagens Kongo. Det sporer seg selv tilbake til den mytiske grunnlegger Kongolo, som sammen med sine folk erobret flere høvdingssteder og forente den til et stadig vokende rike under seg. Lubariket ble preget av kulturene i Upemba-lavlandet rundt Upembasjøen og var football uniform costume, til forskjell fra de omliggende høvdingsfellesskap, organisert sentralistisk. Lubaenes kongeembede var mektig, men ikke stabilt dynastisk. Dermet var det stadig strid om tronfølgen. Disse stridighetene skulle svekke riket og til slutt bidra til dets undergang.

Også Kongolo selv ble tatt av dage mot slutten av 1500-tallet, av Ilunga Mbidi belt bag running, og riket ble urolig og ustabilt. I de kommenfe rundt hundre år rehjerte tre dynastier, noe som illustrerer monarkiets svakheter. Ikke desto mindre var det mot slutten av 1600-tallet at Lubariket var på sitt største, under Kumwimbu Ngombé best phone holder for running. Det strakk seg da helt til Tanganyikasjøens bredd i øst.

En av Kongolos sønner brøt opp op 1600-tallet og ble grunnlegger av Lundariket.

Mot midten av 1800-tallet behersket riket Katangas sørligste deler og strakk seg ned til det som nå er Zimbabwe. Derette rbegynte det å skrumpe inn og falle fra hverandre ved stadige borgerkriger. I 1889 ble det splid i kongeslekten, og kongeriket gikk i oppløsning da det kom i kamp mot Chokwe.

Ancient Egyptian technology

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Ancient Egyptian technology describes devices and technologies invented or used in Ancient Egypt. The Egyptians invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes. They used rope trusses to stiffen the beam of ships. Egyptian paper, made from papyrus, and pottery were mass-produced and exported throughout the Mediterranean basin. The wheel was used for a number of purposes, but chariots only came into use after the Second Intermediate period. The Egyptians also played an important role in developing Mediterranean maritime technology including ships and lighthouses.

Significant advances in ancient Egypt during the dynastic period include astronomy

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, mathematics, and medicine. Their geometry was a necessary outgrowth of surveying to preserve the layout and ownership of farmland, which was flooded annually by the Nile river. The 3,4,5 right triangle and other rules of thumb served to represent rectilinear structures, and the post and lintel architecture of Egypt. Egypt also was a center of alchemy research for much of the western world.

The word paper comes from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants. Papyrus was produced as early as 3000 BC in Egypt, and sold to ancient Greece and Rome. The establishment of the Library of Alexandria limited the supply of papyrus for others. As a result, according to the Roman historian Pliny (Natural History records, xiii.21), parchment was invented under the patronage of Eumenes II of Pergamon to build his rival library at Pergamon. This however is a myth; parchment had been in use in Anatolia and elsewhere long before the rise of Pergamon.

Egyptian hieroglyphs, a phonetic writing system, served as the basis for the Phoenician alphabet from which later alphabets were derived. With this ability, writing and record keeping, the Egyptians developed one of the —if not the— first decimal system.

The city of Alexandria retained preeminence for its records and scrolls with its library. That ancient library was damaged by fire when it fell under Roman rule, and was destroyed completely by 642 CE. With it, a huge amount of antique literature, history, and knowledge was lost.

Some of the older tools used in the construction of Egyptian housing included reeds and clay. According to Lucas and Harris, “reeds were plastered with clay in order to keep out of heat and cold more effectually”. Other tools that were used were “limestone, chiseled stones, wooden mallets, and stone hammers”. With these tools, ancient Egyptians were able to create more than just housing, but also sculptures of their gods, goddesses, pyramids, etc.

Many temples from Ancient Egypt are not standing today. Some are in ruin from wear and tear, while others have been lost entirely. The Egyptian structures are among the largest constructions ever conceived and built by humans. They constitute one of the most potent and enduring symbols of Ancient Egyptian civilization. Temples and tombs built by a pharaoh famous for her projects, Hatshepsut, were massive and included many colossal statues of her. Pharaoh Tutankamun’s rock-cut tomb in the Valley of the Kings was full of jewellery and antiques. In some late myths, Ptah was identified as the primordial mound and had called creation into being, he was considered the deity of craftsmen, and in particular, of stone-based crafts. Imhotep, who was included in the Egyptian pantheon, was the first documented engineer tenderizer for beef.

In Hellenistic Egypt, lighthouse technology was developed, the most famous example being the Lighthouse of Alexandria. Alexandria was a port for the ships that traded the goods manufactured in Egypt or imported into Egypt. A giant cantilevered hoist lifted cargo to and from ships. The lighthouse itself was designed by Sostratus of Cnidus and built in the 3rd century BC (between 285 and 247 BC) on the island of Pharos in Alexandria, Egypt, which has since become a peninsula. This lighthouse was renowned in its time and knowledge of it was never lost. A 2006 drawing of it created from the study of many references, is shown at the right.

The Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world with its architectural monuments, which include the pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx—among the largest and most famous buildings in the world.

The most famous pyramids are the Egyptian pyramids—huge structures built of brick or stone, some of which are among the largest constructions by humans. Pyramids functioned as tombs for pharaohs. In Ancient Egypt, a pyramid was referred to as mer, literally “place of ascendance.” The Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest in Egypt and one of the largest in the world. The base is over 13 acres (53,000 m2) in area. It is one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and the only one of the seven to survive into modern times. The Ancient Egyptians capped the peaks of their pyramids with gold and covered their faces with polished white limestone, although many of the stones used for the finishing purpose have fallen or been removed for use on other structures over the millennia.

The Red Pyramid of Egypt (c.26th century BC), named for the light crimson hue of its exposed granite surfaces, is the third largest of Egyptian pyramids. Menkaure’s Pyramid, likely dating to the same era, was constructed of limestone and granite blocks. The Great Pyramid of Giza (c steel water bottle. 2580 BC) contains a huge granite sarcophagus fashioned of “Red Aswan Granite.” The mostly ruined Black Pyramid dating from the reign of Amenemhat III once had a polished granite pyramidion or capstone, now on display in the main hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (see Dahshur). Other uses in Ancient Egypt, include columns, door lintels, sills, jambs, and wall and floor veneer.

The ancient Egyptians had some of the first monumental stone buildings (such as in Sakkara). How the Egyptians worked the solid granite is still a matter of debate. Archaeologist Patrick Hunt has postulated that the Egyptians used emery shown to have higher hardness on the Mohs scale. Regarding construction, of the various methods possibly used by builders, the lever moved and uplifted obelisks weighing more than 100 tons.

Obelisks were a prominent part of the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrances of various monuments and important buildings, such as temples thermos metal water bottle. In 1902, Encyclopædia Britannica wrote, “The earliest temple obelisk still in position is that of Senusret I of the XIIth Dynasty at Heliopolis (68 feet high)”. The word “obelisk” is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, the great traveler, was the first writer to describe the objects. Twenty-nine ancient Egyptian obelisks are known to have survived, plus the unfinished obelisk being built by Hatshepsut to celebrate her sixteenth year as pharaoh. It broke while being carved out of the quarry and was abandoned when another one was begun to replace it. The broken one was found at Aswan and provides the only insight into the methods of how they were hewn. The obelisk symbolized the sky deity Ra and during the brief religious reformation of Akhenaten, was said to be a petrified ray of the Aten, the sun disk. It is hypothesized by New York University Egyptologist Patricia Blackwell Gary and Astronomy senior editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient Egyptian pyramid and Obelisk were derived from natural phenomena associated with the sun (the sun-god Ra being the Egyptians’ greatest deity). It was also thought that the deity existed within the structure. The Egyptians also used pillars extensively.

It is unknown whether the Ancient Egyptians had kites, but a team led by Maureen Clemmons and Mory Gharib raised a 5,900-pound, 15-foot (4.6 m) obelisk into vertical position with a kite, a system of pulleys, and a support frame. Maureen Clemmons developed the idea that the ancient Egyptians used kites for work. Ramps have been reported as being widely used in Ancient Egypt. A ramp is an inclined plane, or a plane surface set at an angle (other than a right angle) against a horizontal surface. The inclined plane permits one to overcome a large resistance by applying a relatively small force through a longer distance than the load is to be raised. In civil engineering the slope (ratio of rise/run) is often referred to as a grade or gradient. An inclined plane is one of the commonly-recognized simple machines. Maureen Clemmons subsequently led a team of researchers demonstrating a kite made of natural material and reinforced with shellac (which according to their research pulled with 97% the efficiency of nylon), in a 9 mph wind, would easily pull an average 2-ton pyramid stone up the 1st two courses of a pyramid (in collaboration with Cal Poly, Pomona, on a 53-stone pyramid built in Rosamond, CA).

The Ancient Egyptians had knowledge to some extent of sail construction. This is governed by the science of aerodynamics. The earliest Egyptian sails were simply placed to catch the wind and push a vessel. Later Egyptian sails dating to 2400 BCE were built with the recognition that ships could sail against the wind using the lift of the sails. Queen Hatshepsut oversaw the preparations and funding of an expedition of five ships, each measuring seventy feet long, and with several sails.[dubious ][citation needed]Various others exist, also.

Egyptian ship with a loose-footed sail, similar to a longship. From the 5th dynasty (around 2700 BC)

Model ship from the Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. 1422–1411 B.C.) Note that the sail is stretched between yards.

Loading Egyptian vessels with the produce of Punt. Shows folded sails, lowered upper yard, yard construction, and heavy deck cargo.

Ancient Egyptians had experience with building a variety of ships. Some of them survive to this day as Khufu Solar ship. The ships were found in many areas of Egypt as the Abydos boats and remnants of other ships were found near the pyramids.

Sneferu’s ancient cedar wood ship Praise of the Two Lands is the first reference recorded to a ship being referred to by name.

Although quarter rudders were the norm in Nile navigation, the Egyptians were the first to use also stern-mounted rudders (not of the modern type but center mounted steering oars).

Irrigation as the artificial application of water to the soil was used to some extent in Ancient Egypt, a hydraulic civilization (which entails hydraulic engineering). In crop production it is mainly used to replace missing rainfall in periods of drought, as opposed to reliance on direct rainfall (referred to as dryland farming or as rainfed farming). Before technology advanced, the people of Egypt relied on the natural flow of the Nile River to tend to the crops. Although the Nile provided sufficient watering survival domesticated animals, crops, and the people of Egypt, there were times where the Nile would flood the area wreaking havoc amongst the land. There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the twelfth dynasty (about 1800 BCE) using the natural lake of the Fayûm as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry seasons, as the lake swelled annually with the flooding of the Nile. Construction of drainage canals reduced the problems of major flooding from entering homes and areas of crops; but because it was a hydraulic civilization, much of the water management was controlled in a systematic way.

Egyptian knowledge of glassmaking was advanced. The earliest known glass beads from Egypt were made during the New Kingdom around 1500 BC and were produced in a variety of colors. They were made by winding molten glass around a metal bar and were highly prized as a trading commodity, especially blue beads, which were believed to have magical powers. The Egyptians made small jars and bottles using the core-formed method. Glass threads were wound around a bag of sand tied to a rod. The glass was continually reheated to fuse the threads together. The glass-covered sand bag was kept in motion until the required shape and thickness was achieved. The rod was allowed to cool, then finally the bag was punctured and the sand poured out and reused . The Egyptians also created the first colored glass rods which they used to create colorful beads and decorations. They also worked with cast glass, which was produced by pouring molten glass into a mold, much like iron and the more modern crucible steel.

The Egyptians were a practical people and this is reflected in their astronomy in contrast to Babylonia where the first astronomical texts were written in astrological terms. Even before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified in 3000 BCE, observations of the night sky had influenced the development of a religion in which many of its principal deities were heavenly bodies. In Lower Egypt, priests built circular mud-brick walls with which to make a false horizon where they could mark the position of the sun as it rose at dawn, and then with a plumb-bob note the northern or southern turning points (solstices). This allowed them to discover that the sun disc, personified as Ra, took 365 days to travel from his birthplace at the winter solstice and back to it. Meanwhile, in Upper Egypt a lunar calendar was being developed based on the behavior of the moon and the reappearance of Sirius in its heliacal rising after its annual absence of about 70 days.

After unification, problems with trying to work with two calendars (both depending upon constant observation) led to a merged, simplified civil calendar with twelve 30-day months, three seasons of four months each, plus an extra five days, giving a 365-year day but with no way of accounting for the extra quarter day each year. Day and night were split into 24 units, each personified by a deity. A sundial found on Seti I’s cenotaph with instructions for its use shows us that the daylight hours were at one time split into 10 units, with 12 hours for the night and an hour for the morning and evening twilights. However, by Seti I’s time day and night were normally divided into 12 hours each, the length of which would vary according to the time of year.

Key to much of this was the motion of the sun god Ra and his annual movement along the horizon at sunrise. Out of Egyptian myths such as those around Ra and the sky goddess Nut came the development of the Egyptian calendar, time keeping, and even concepts of royalty. An astronomical ceiling in the burial chamber of Ramesses VI shows the sun being born from Nut in the morning, traveling along her body during the day and being swallowed at night.

During the Fifth Dynasty six kings built sun temples in honour of Ra. The temple complexes built by Niuserre at Abu Gurab and Userkaf at Abusir have been excavated and have astronomical alignments, and the roofs of some of the buildings could have been used by observers to view the stars, calculate the hours at night and predict the sunrise for religious festivals.[citation needed]

Claims have been made that precession of the equinoxes was known in Ancient Egypt prior to the time of Hipparchus. This has been disputed however on the grounds that pre-Hipparchus texts do not mention precession and that “it is only by cunning interpretation of ancient myths and images, which are ostensibly about something else, that precession can be discerned in them, aided by some pretty esoteric numerological speculation involving the 72 years that mark one degree of shift in the zodiacal system and any number of permutations by multiplication, division, and addition.”

Note however that the Egyptian observation of a slowly changing stellar alignment over a multi-year period does not necessarily mean that they understood or even cared what was going on. For instance, from the Middle Kingdom onwards they used a table with entries for each month to tell the time of night from the passing of constellations. These went in error after a few centuries because of their calendar and precession, but were copied (with scribal errors) long after they lost their practical usefulness or the possibility of understanding and use of them in the current years, rather than the years in which they were originally used.

The Edwin Smith Papyrus is one of the first medical documents still extant, and perhaps the earliest document which attempts to describe and analyze the brain: given this, it might be seen as the very beginnings of neuroscience. However, medical historians believe that ancient Egyptian pharmacology was largely ineffective. According to a paper published by Michael D. Parkins, 72% of 260 medical prescriptions in the Hearst Papyrus had no curative elements. According to Michael D. Parkins, sewage pharmacology first began in ancient Egypt and was continued through the Middle Ages, and while the use of animal dung can have curative properties, it is not without its risk. Practices such as applying cow dung to wounds, ear piercing, tattooing, and chronic ear infections were important factors in developing tetanus. Frank J. Snoek wrote that Egyptian medicine used fly specks, lizard blood, swine teeth, and other such remedies which he believes could have been harmful.

Mummification of the dead was not always practiced in Egypt. Once the practice began, an individual was placed at a final resting place through a set of rituals and protocol. The Egyptian funeral was a complex ceremony including various monuments, prayers, and rituals undertaken in honor of the deceased. The poor, who could not afford expensive tombs, were buried in shallow graves in the sand, and because of the arid environment they were often naturally mummified.

Evidence indicates that Egyptians made use of potter’s wheels in the manufacturing of pottery from as early as the 4th Dynasty. Chariots, however, are only believed to have been introduced by the invasion of the Hyksos in the Second Intermediate period; during the New Kingdom era, chariotry became central to Egypt’s military.

The Egyptians developed a variety of furniture. There in the lands of ancient Egypt is the first evidence for stools, beds, and tables (such as from the tombs similar to Tutenkhamen’s). Recovered Ancient Egyptian furniture includes a third millennium BC bed discovered in the Tarkhan Tomb, a c.2550 BC. gilded set from the tomb of Queen Hetepheres I, and a c. 1550 BC. stool from Thebes.

Some have suggested that the Egyptians had some form of understanding electric phenomena from observing lightning and interacting with electric fish (such as Malapterurus electricus) or other animals (such as electric eels). The comment about lightning appears to come from a misunderstanding of a text referring to “high poles covered with copper plates” to argue this but Dr. Bolko Stern has written in detail explaining why the copper covered tops of poles (which were lower than the associated pylons) do not relate to electricity or lightning, pointing out that no evidence of anything used to manipulate electricity had been found in Egypt and that this was a magical and not a technical installation.

Those exploring fringe theories of ancient technology have suggested that there were electric lights used in Ancient Egypt. Engineers have constructed a working model based on their interpretation of a relief found in the Hathor temple at the Dendera Temple complex. Authors (such as Peter Krassa and Reinhard Habeck) have produced a basic theory of the device’s operation. The standard explanation, however, for the Dendera light, which comprises three stone reliefs (one single and a double representation) is that the depicted image represents a lotus leaf and flower from which a sacred snake is spawned in accordance with Egyptian mythological beliefs. This sacred snake sometimes is identified as the Milky Way (the snake) in the night sky (the leaf, lotus, or “bulb”) that became identified with Hathor because of her similar association in creation.

Under Hellenistic rule, Egypt was one of the most prosperous regions of the Hellenistic civilization. The ancient Egyptian city of Rhakotis was renovated as Alexandria, which became the largest city around the Mediterranean Basin. Under Roman rule, Egypt was one of the most prosperous regions of the Roman Empire, with Alexandria being second only to ancient Rome in size.

Recent scholarship suggests that the water wheel originates from Ptolemaic Egypt, where it appeared by the 3rd century BC. This is seen as an evolution of the paddle-driven water-lifting wheels that had been known in Egypt a century earlier. According to John Peter Oleson, both the compartmented wheel and the hydraulic Noria may have been invented in Egypt by the 4th century BC, with the Sakia being invented there a century later. This is supported by archeological finds at Faiyum, Egypt, where the oldest archeological evidence of a water-wheel has been found, in the form of a Sakia dating back to the 3rd century BC. A papyrus dating to the 2nd century BC also found in Faiyum mentions a water wheel used for irrigation, a 2nd-century BC fresco found at Alexandria depicts a compartmented Sakia, and the writings of Callixenus of Rhodes mention the use of a Sakia in Ptolemaic Egypt during the reign of Ptolemy IV in the late 3rd century BC.

Ancient Greek technology was often inspired by the need to improve weapons and tactics in war. Ancient Roman technology is a set of artifacts and customs which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible over nearly a thousand years.

Under Arab rule, Egypt once again became one of the most prosperous regions around the Mediterranean. The Egyptian city of Cairo was founded by the Fatimid Caliphate and served as its capital city. At the time, Cairo was second only to Baghdad, capital of the rival Abbasid Caliphate. After the fall of Baghdad, however, Cairo overtook it as the largest city in the Mediterranean region until the early modern period.

Inventions in medieval Islam covers the inventions developed in the medieval Islamic world, a region that extended from Al-Andalus and Africa in the west to the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia in the east. The timeline of Islamic science and engineering covers the general development of science and technology in the Islamic world.

Amanian Gate

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The Amanian Gate (Latin: Amani Portae) or Bahçe Pass (Turkish: Bahçe Geçidi), also known as the Amanus Pass or Amanides Pylae (Ἀμανίδες or Ἀμανικαί Πύλαι ‘Amanus Gates’), is a mountain pass located on the border between Osmaniye and Gaziantep provinces in south-central Turkey

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. The pass provides a way through the northern Amanus Mountains (modern Nur Mountains) lint shaver canada, connecting Cilicia to southern Anatolia and northern Syria. It is one of two passes through the Amanus, the other being the Syrian Gate to the south.

The Amanian Gate was mentioned in the ancient Nabonidus Chronicle.

The pass played an important role leading to the Battle of Issus. The Persian army advanced through the Amanic Gate or another nearby pass, coming behind the Macedonian army which turned back to face and defeat the Persian army. The exact Persian strategy remains in dispute. According to Jona Lendering, after a part of Alexander the Great army occupied the Syrian Gate, Darius III of Persia decided to lead his army north through the Amanian Gate and place his army between the two Macedonian armies at the town of Issus. However, the Macedonians joined forces before the arrival of Darius, and the outcome was Persian defeat. However, Donald Engels rejects a similar interpretation.

According to some historians, after the conquest of the Levant by the Arab Caliphate, the Mardaites, Christians following either Miaphysitism or Monothelitism, gained a semi-independent status around the Amanus Mountains within the Byzantine-Arab border region. They initially agreed to serve as spies for the Arabs and to guard the Amanian Gate, but their loyalty was intermittent and they often sided with the Byzantines instead.

André-Jacques Marie

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André-Jacques Marie (ur. 14 października 1925 w Cap-d’Ail) – francuski lekkoatleta, płotkarz, mistrz Europy z 1950.

Specjalizował się w biegu na 110 metrów przez płotki

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. Odpadł w eliminacjach tej konkurencji na mistrzostwach Europy w 1946 w Oslo, a na igrzyskach olimpijskich w 1948 z Londynie nie ukończył biegu półfinałowego.

Zwyciężył w biegu na 110 metrów przez płotki na mistrzostwach Europy w 1950 w Brukseli.

Trzykrotnie wyrównywał lub poprawiał rekord Francji na 110 metrów przez płotki, doprowadzając go do wyniku 14 glass water bottle with measurements,4 s (25 czerwca 1949 w Paryżu).

Był mistrzem Francji w biegu na 110 metrów przez płotki w latach 1947-1951 oraz wicemistrzem w 1946.

W latach 1946-1951 wystąpił 24 razy w meczach reprezentacji Francji.

1934: József Kovács • 1938: Donald Finlay • 1946: Håkan Lidman • 1950: André-Jacques Marie • 1954: Jewhen Bułanczyk • 1958: Martin Lauer • 1962: Anatolij Michajłow • 1966: Eddy Ottoz • 1969: Eddy Ottoz • 1971: Frank Siebeck • 1974: Guy Drut • 1978: Thomas Munkelt • 1982: Thomas Munkelt • 1986: Stéphane Caristan • 1990: Colin Jackson • 1994: Colin Jackson • 1998: Colin Jackson • 2002: Colin Jackson • 2006: Staņislavs Olijars • 2010: Andy Turner • 2012: Siergiej Szubienkow • 2014: Siergiej Szubienkow • 2016: Dimitri Bascou

Microsoft AutoRoute

Home | Microsoft AutoRoute

Microsoft AutoRoute ist ein Routenplaner für den PC zum Einsehen von Landkarten und zum automatischen Erstellen individueller Fahrrouten mit dem Kraftfahrzeug. Die Version für Nordamerika (USA und Kanada) heißt Microsoft Streets & Trips.

Die erste Version brachte die britische Firma NextBase Ltd meat tenderizer unseasoned. in den späten 80er Jahren für DOS-basierende Computer auf den Markt und portierte es später auf den Apple Macintosh und Microsoft Windows. 1994 wurde die Software an Microsoft verkauft und unter den Namen Microsoft Automap Road Atlas und Microsoft Automap Streets vermarktet. Seit 1995 heißt das Programm in Europa Microsoft AutoRoute best water bottles.

Ab Version 2000 war eine Basisversion unter verschiedenen Namenszusätzen (Express, Standard, zuletzt Essentials) Bestandteil der Works Suite bis Version 2006. Über diesen Vertriebsweg als OEM-Version hat das Programm seine größte Bekanntheit erlangt.

Die aktuelle Programmversion 2013 lässt sich ab Windows XP bzw. Windows Server 2003 installieren. Bei Windows XP und Windows Server sind die 64-Bit Versionen ausgeschlossen.

Im Juli 2014 gab Microsoft bekannt, das Programm werde eingestellt. Die Unterstützung mit Aktualisierungen soll bis Juli 2015 fortgeführt werden custom glass water bottles. Die Version 2013 ist somit die letzte und wird seit Anfang 2015 nicht mehr vermarktet.

AutoRoute ist in zwei Vollversionen mit oder ohne GPS-Navigation erhältlich und unterstützt die sprachgesteuerte Führung für mobile Windowscomputer. In der OEM-Version ist das Programm ohne GPS-Navigation und Sprachausgabe für den stationären Einsatz am Desktop-Rechner vorgesehen. Über Internet und Webdienste wie Windows Live Search sind jedoch auch weitere Onlinefunktionen enthalten. Version 2006 ist die letzte Version für Windows 98 / Me und die Version 2007 ist die letzte Version für Windows 2000.

Eine Besonderheit ist die Möglichkeit, die Karten mit Zeichenwerkzeugen individuell anpassen zu können.

Enthalten ist das Kartenmaterial von 37 europäischen Ländern. Nur für die wichtigsten europäischen Länder ist auch eine Adresssuche mit Straßennamen verfügbar, für die übrigen berücksichtigten Länder sind lediglich Fernstraßen verzeichnet. Das Kartenmaterial kann auf dem Datenträger verbleiben oder mitinstalliert werden und ist eine programmgestützte Alternative für Online-Routenplaner.

Antologi

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En antologi (græsk antholo’gia; egentlig “blomstersamling”, af anthos blomst, samt en afledning af logos ord; -logi i sammensætning: læren om noget, fx biologi (læren om liv), teologi (læren om Gud)) er en samling af udvalgte digte eller litteraturprøver på én eller flere forfatteres arbejde.

Betegnelsen bruges specielt om to store samlinger af digte fra antikken (den græske og den latinske antologi) triathlon running belt. Den første græske antologi skyldes digteren Meleagros fra det syriske Gadara (ca. 80 f.Kr.), der i en “krans” samlede smådigte, især epigrammer, af ham selv og 46 andre digtere, deriblandt Archilochos, Alkaios, Anakreon, Simonides, Sapfo og Erinna. Denne antologi forøgedes i begyndelsen af den romerske kejsertid af Filippos fra Thessalonika med et udvalg af en halv snes nye epigrammatikere.

Lignende samlinger blev udgivet under Hadrian af Diogenianos fra Herakleia og Straton fra Sardes og i 500-tallet af Agathias fra Myrina. Alle disse nu tabte antologier dannede grundlaget for den af Konstantinos Kefalos i Konstantinopel ved begyndelsen af 900-tallet skabte antologi i 15 bøger, som indeholdt det bedste af alle de tidligere. Den er bevaret i et Heidelberg-håndskrift (codex Palatinus). I lang tid kendte man dog kun et på enkelte punkter fuldstændigere udtog, der var gjort af munken Maximus Planudes i 1300-tallet (i syv bøger). Det blev udgivet først af Janus Laskaris (Firenze 1494), senere af Henrik Stephanus (Paris 1566) og af Jeronimo de Bosch (Utrecht 1795-1822) med en fortrinlig oversættelse af Hugo Grotius.

Den fuldstændige “palatinske” antologi blev opdaget 1607 af Claudius Salmasius og er udgivet af Brunck

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, Jacobs, Dübner (Paris 1864-1890) og Stadtmüller (Leipzig 1894-1906, tre bind) samt i udtog af Weichert (Meissen 1823), Jacobs (Gotha 1826) og Meineke (Berlin 1842). Hertil er givet et supplement ved Welckers: sylloge epigrammatum Graecorum (Bonn 1828-1829) og Kaibels: Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibus conlecta (Berlin 1878).

Den græske antologi omfatter digte fra de forskelligste perioder og af højst forskelligt værd, men giver dog en slags erstatning for tabet af en mængde lyriske digteres arbejder.

Nogen samling svarende til den græske antologi er ikke bevaret fra den romerske oldtid tenderizing tough steak, men nyere filologer har foranstaltet samlinger af latinske smådigte, der findes dels i håndskrifter runners hydration belt, dels som indskrifter, og udgivet disse under navnet Anthologia Latina. Digtene er gennemgående fra en sen tid, af ubekendte forfattere og af ringe eller intet poetisk værd. Udgivet af Riese og Bücheler (Leipzig 1894-1906, to bind).

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