#3 – trzeci album Shakespears Sister. Po wydaniu i sukcesie poprzedniego albumu Hormonally Yours, Marcella Detroit opuściła zespół
. Dlatego też #3 można uważać za solowy album Siobhan Fahey. Artystka chciała wydać album pod swoim nazwiskiem, jednak wytwórnia London Records zdecydowała wydać album pod szyldem Shakespears Sister.
Materiał na album został stworzony przez Siobhan, jej byłego męża Dave’a Stewarta i nowych członków zespołu. Album został wyprodukowany przez Siobhan, Dave Stewart oraz producentów Hormonally Yours (Alan Moulder
, Andy Wright i Flood)
. Pod względem muzycznym była bardziej rockowa od poprzednich.
Pierwszy singel z płyty “I Can Drive” osiągnął 30. miejsce na brytyjskiej liście singli, jednak był uznany za porażkę przez wytwórnię, która w efekcie zawiesiła wydanie albumu
Siobhan po latach udało się zdobyć prawa do płyty i w 2004 roku wydała album przez swoją stronę internetową.
W związku z odnowionym zainteresowaniem zespołem, w tym samym roku London Records wydało zbiór największych hitów zespołu na CD/DVD.
Marcin Stadnicki herbu Szreniawa (ok. 1552-1628), z Nowego Żmigrodu, kasztelan sanocki, ochmistrz dworu carowej Maryny Mniszchówny, dziedzic; Krzemienicy, klucza Jawornika Polskiego i Rymanowa
Był synem Stanisława Mateusza i Barbary ze Zborowskich. Brat Stanisława “Diabła Łańcuckiego” i Jana
, Samuela, Andrzeja, Piotra, Mikołaja oraz Katarzyny .
W skład klucza dóbr, które posiadał Marcin wchodził między innymi Jawornik Polski z wsiami: Kosztowa, Huta Kosztowska, Laskówka i Hadle. Ufundował nową parafię w Jaworniku Polskim w roku 1587. W 1595 r. – Marcin Stadnicki
, kupił od Zbigniewa Sienieńskiego Rymanów. Gruntownie wyremontował on kościół w Rymanowie. Można przypuszczać, że rozbudował także fortalicjum.
Po jego śmierci, żona na swą siedzibę wybrała Rymanów. W 1605 roku po śmierci Jana Tomasza Drohojowskiego zamek w Jamnie Dolnej najechał Jan Krasicki, a po nim Marcin Stadnicki i oblegał zamkniętą żonę Drohojowskiego. Z braku żywności poddano zamek, a najeźdźca przywłaszczył sobie całe jego wyposażenie. Jej córka Helena wyszła za Michała Zebrzydowskiego. Wraz z ręką Marianny, jedynej córki Marcina Stadnickiego zmarłej przed 1629 rokiem, klucz Jawornik Polski z pięcioma wsiami przejął Michał Zebrzydowski- miecznik koronny i wojewoda krakowski.
Wychowany w kalwinizmie przeszedł na katolicyzm i ze swoich dóbr wypędził pastorów, oddając zbory katolikom. Łańcut odziedziczył jego brat Stanisław, gorliwy kalwinista i tam kalwinizm utrzymał się do ok. 1628 roku
Zobacz też: historia Łańcuta, Stadniccy
1B09, 1CRV, 1GNH, 1LJ7, 3L2Y, 3PVN, 3PVO
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation. It is an acute-phase protein of hepatic origin that increases following interleukin-6 secretion by macrophages and T cells. Its physiological role is to bind to lysophosphatidylcholine expressed on the surface of dead or dying cells (and some types of bacteria) in order to activate the complement system via the C1Q complex.
CRP is synthesized by the liver in response to factors released by macrophages and fat cells (adipocytes). It is a member of the pentraxin family of proteins. It is not related to C-peptide (insulin) or protein C (blood coagulation). C-reactive protein was the first pattern recognition receptor (PRR) to be identified.
CRP was so named because it was first identified as a substance in the serum of patients with acute inflammation that reacted with the somatic ‘C’ carbohydrate antigen of Pneumococcus.
Discovered by Tillett and Francis in 1930, it was initially thought that CRP might be a pathogenic secretion since it was elevated in a variety of illnesses, including cancer
. The later discovery of hepatic synthesis demonstrated that it is a native protein
The CRP gene is located on the first chromosome (1q21-q23). It is a member of the small pentraxins family. It has 224 amino acids, has a monomer molecular mass of 25106 Da, and has an annular pentameric discoid shape.
CRP binds to the phosphocholine expressed on the surface of dead or dying cells and some bacteria. This activates the complement system, promoting phagocytosis by macrophages, which clears necrotic and apoptotic cells and bacteria.
This so-called acute phase response occurs as a result of a rise in the concentration of IL-6, which is produced by macrophages as well as adipocytes in response to a wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions such as bacterial, viral, or fungal infections; rheumatic and other inflammatory diseases; malignancy; and tissue injury and necrosis. These conditions cause release of interleukin-6 and other cytokines that trigger the synthesis of CRP and fibrinogen by the liver.
CRP binds to phosphocholine on micro-organisms. It is thought to assist in complement binding to foreign and damaged cells and enhances phagocytosis by macrophages (opsonin-mediated phagocytosis), which express a receptor for CRP
. It plays a role in innate immunity as an early defense system against infections.
CRP rises within two hours of the onset of inflammation, up to a 50,000-fold, and peaks at 48 hours
. Its half-life of 18 hours is constant, and therefore its level is determined by the rate of production and hence the severity of the precipitating cause. CRP is thus a screen for inflammation.
CRP is used mainly as a marker of inflammation
. Apart from liver failure, there are few known factors that interfere with CRP production.
Measuring and charting CRP values can prove useful in determining disease progress or the effectiveness of treatments. ELISA, immunoturbidimetry, nephelometry, rapid immunodiffusion, and visual agglutination are all methods used to measure CRP.
A high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) test measures low levels of CRP using laser nephelometry. The test gives results in 25 minutes with a sensitivity down to 0.04 mg/L.
The risk of developing cardiovascular disease is quantified as follows:
Normal concentration in healthy human serum is between 5 and 10 mg/L, increasing with ageing. Higher levels are found in late pregnant women, mild inflammation and viral infections (10–40 mg/L), active inflammation, bacterial infection (40–200 mg/L), severe bacterial infections and burns (>200 mg/L).[not in citation given]
CRP is a more sensitive and accurate reflection of the acute phase response than the ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate). ESR may be normal while CRP is elevated. CRP returns to normal more quickly than ESR in response to therapy.
The utility of CRP in differentiating inflammatory diseases (including inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal lymphoma, intestinal tuberculosis and Behcet’s syndrome) has been investigated and compared to other inflammatory biomarkers, such as ESR and WBC.
The role of inflammation in cancer is not well understood. Some organs of the body show greater risk of cancer when they are chronically inflamed. While there is an association between increased levels of C-reactive protein and risk of developing cancer, there is no association between genetic polymorphisms influencing circulating levels of CRP and cancer risk.
In a 2004 prospective cohort study on colon cancer risk associated with CRP levels, people with colon cancer had higher average CRP concentrations than people without colon cancer. It can be noted that the average CRP levels in both groups were well within the range of CRP levels usually found in healthy people. However, these findings may suggest that low inflammation level can be associated with a lower risk of colon cancer, concurring with previous studies that indicate anti-inflammatory drugs could lower colon cancer risk.
Recent research suggests that patients with elevated basal levels of CRP are at an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. A study of over 700 nurses showed that those in the highest quartile of trans fat consumption had blood levels of CRP that were 73% higher than those in the lowest quartile. Although one group of researchers indicated that CRP may be only a moderate risk factor for cardiovascular disease, this study (known as the Reykjavik Study) was found to have some problems for this type of analysis related to the characteristics of the population studied, and there was an extremely long follow-up time, which may have attenuated the association between CRP and future outcomes. Others have shown that CRP can exacerbate ischemic necrosis in a complement-dependent fashion and that CRP inhibition can be a safe and effective therapy for myocardial and cerebral infarcts; so far, this has been demonstrated in animal models only.
It has been hypothesized that patients with high CRP levels might benefit from use of statins. This is based on the JUPITER trial that found that elevated CRP levels without hyperlipidemia benefited. Statins were selected because they have been proven to reduce levels of CRP. Studies comparing effect of various statins in hs-CRP revealed similar effects of different statins. A subsequent trial however failed to find that CRP was useful for determining statin benefit.
In a meta-analysis of 20 studies involving 1,466 patients with coronary artery disease, CRP levels were found to be reduced after exercise interventions. Among those studies, higher CRP concentrations or poorer lipid profiles before beginning exercise were associated with greater reductions in CRP.
To clarify whether CRP is a bystander or active participant in atherogenesis, a 2008 study compared people with various genetic CRP variants. Those with a high CRP due to genetic variation had no increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to those with a normal or low CRP. A study published in 2011 shows that CRP is associated with lipid responses to low-fat and high-polyunsaturated fat diets.
Scleroderma, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis elicit little or no CRP response. CRP levels also tend not to be elevated in SLE unless serositis or synovitis is present. Elevations of CRP in the absence of clinically significant inflammation can occur in renal failure. CRP level is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. Patients with high CRP concentrations are more likely to develop stroke, myocardial infarction, and severe peripheral vascular disease. Elevated level of CRP can also be observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, is also increased in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly higher in patients with OSA compared to obese control subjects. Patients with OSA have higher plasma CRP concentrations that increased corresponding to the severity of their apnea-hypopnea index score. Treatment of OSA with CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) significantly alleviated the effect of OSA on CRP and IL-6 levels.
Arterial damage results from white blood cell invasion and inflammation within the wall. CRP is a general marker for inflammation and infection, so it can be used as a very rough proxy for heart disease risk. Since many things can cause elevated CRP, this is not a very specific prognostic indicator. Nevertheless, a level above 2.4 mg/L has been associated with a doubled risk of a coronary event compared to levels below 1 mg/L; however, the study group in this case consisted of patients who had been diagnosed with unstable angina pectoris; whether elevated CRP has any predictive value of acute coronary events in the general population of all age ranges remains unclear. Currently, C-reactive protein is not recommended as a cardiovascular disease screening test for average-risk adults without symptoms.
The American Heart Association and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have defined risk groups as follows:
But hs-CRP is not to be used alone and should be combined with elevated levels of cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, and glucose level. Smoking, hypertension and diabetes also increase the risk level of cardiovascular disease.
It has previously been speculated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CRP gene may have an impact on clinical decision-making based on CRP in rheumatoid arthritis, e.g. DAS28 (Disease Activity Score 28 joints). A recent study showed that CRP genotype and haplotype were only marginally associated with serum CRP levels and without any association to the DAS28 score. Thus, that DAS28, which is the core parameter for inflammatory activity in RA, can be used for clinical decision-making without adjustment for CRP gene variants.
Toi Ora Live Art Trust is an inner-city shared creative space in Auckland New Zealand that provides free services to adults receiving mental health treatment. The trust is funded by both public and private sources including the Auckland District Health Board. Toi Ora is notable in that it demonstrates a commitment from the traditional mental health services establishment to creative and artistic expression as an ongoing therapeutic response to mental illness.
Classes are tutored by practitioners who are artists themselves with experience and/or an understanding of the issues surrounding mental health. Studio space is available for individual or collaborative projects. Clients, referred to as “members,” explore their creative ideas and potential in a supported environment
Toi Ora is a consumer driven organization which sees itself as fundamentally different from drop-in centre s and occupational therapy programmes. Focus is on the arts, culture, and the creative process, rather than on mental illness. Exhibition and performance opportunities are provided through Toi Ora’s own gallery and group art shows elsewhere. Toi Ora is a charitable trust governed by a board of at least 50% of mental health consumers.
Program includes creative writing, painting, drawing
, printmaking, mosaic workshop, performance and acting, music performance, multimedia, music recording, and Maori Arts. Additional facilities and resources include open studio space, workshops, art materials, musical instruments, music recording facilities, publications, computer/internet access, exhibition performance and publishing opportunities, gallery tours, art and music resources including books videos and DVDs etc.
Toi Ora Live Art Trust was registered under New Zealand’s Charitable Trusts Act of 1957 on July 13, 1995. The Trust was the initiative of a group of 15 people consisting of mental health consumers and support workers. Sara McCook Weir was the driving force behind the idea. After a personal experience of mental illness in the United Kingdom Sara came to live in New Zealand in 1992 and was a co-founder of the trust
The initial premises were in a factory space above a spectacle shop in Mt Eden then a factory space above a mechanics workshop in Grey Lynn
. In August 2009 Toi Ora moved again to a larger premises with gallery space.
General elections were held in Zambia on 19 December 1968 to elect the National Assembly and President. The first post-independence polls saw incumbent Kenneth Kaunda retain his post as president, whilst his United National Independence Party, the only party to field candidates in all 105 constituencies, won 81 of the 105 seats in the National Assembly. Voter turnout was 82.5% in the parliamentary election, but 87
.1% in the presidential election
The only other contestants in the National Assembly elections were the Zambian African National Congress (73 candidates), and three independents. The United Party, which had been established in 1966, was banned in 1968
, with many of its members absorbed by the ZANC. The election campaign was marred by violence, with UNIP members in Northern and Luapula Provinces blocking ZANC candidates from lodging nomination papers, resulting in 30 UNIP candidates running unopposed. Nevertheless, the election saw a swing towards the ZANC and four ministers losing their seats
Le Río Yacones est un cours d’eau du nord-ouest de l’Argentine qui coule sur le territoire de la province de Salta. C’est l’affluent principal du río Las Nieves dont il est l’affluent principal
. C’est donc un sous-affluent du rio Paraná par le río Las Nieves
, le río Mojotoro, le río Lavayén, le río San Francisco, le río Bermejo et enfin par le río Paraguay.
Le río Yacones naît sur les versants nord-ouest du Valle de Lerma, zone déprimée qui court du nord au sud en bordure des plissements élevés des sierras subandines du nord-ouest argentin. Dès sa naissance, la rivière se dirige vers le sud-est. Elle finit par se jeter dans le río Las Nieves en rive droite.
La superficie de son bassin versant est de plus ou moins 40 km2.
Le río Yacones a un régime permanent de type pluvio-nival, avec un débit maximal pendant les mois d’été.
Les débits de la rivière ont été observés sur une période de 14 ans (1947-1961) à la station hydrométrique dite de « l’embouchure dans le Las Nieves » située dans la province de Salta, à quelque 50 kilomètres à l’ouest-nord-ouest de la ville de Salta, et ce pour une superficie prise en compte de 40 km2, soit la totalité du bassin versant du cours d’eau.
À l’embouchure, le débit annuel moyen ou module observé sur cette période était de 1,22 m3/s
La lame d’eau écoulée dans le bassin atteint ainsi le chiffre très élevé de 962 millimètres par an
The Street That Cut Everything is a British television documentary presented by BBC political editor Nick Robinson. Billed as a social experiment, 50 residents of a street in Preston, Lancashire were persuaded to go without all council services for six weeks, and work together to run their own community with the aid of the Council Tax rebates they received for not having local authority services. One of the film’s objectives was to highlight the issue of cuts in public spending, but the programme attracted criticism for the nature in which the experiment was conducted. One major point of concern involved dogs being allowed to excessively foul the street, which the residents were then required to clean up, something which raised public health concerns. The programme was aired in two episodes on Monday 16 May 2011.
Details of the programme were reported in January 2011, with the documentary’s intentions being to discover what would happen to an “ordinary residential road”
. It would see residents having to live without refuse collection
, street lighting and street cleaning, and the Daily Telegraph reported that to emphasize their point, the show’s producers had brought about 20 dogs to the street then encouraged their owners to let them foul the road.
The film’s objective was to highlight issues regarding the cuts to public spending being implemented by the Conservative-led coalition government and the effects these might have on the provision of local services. Speaking about the documentary at the time, a spokesman for the BBC said: “This programme will explore how a community faces up to the choices involved in living in an era of cuts, and examine the way in which people act as a group when confronted with limited resources and difficult decisions.”
The street featured in the programme is Beacon Avenue, Fulwood, Preston. During the show Beacon Avenue was however renamed The Street.
BBC Political editor Nick Robinson persuaded the 50 residents of the street to forgo all council services for six weeks
, excluding education and healthcare, and the neighbours were required to arrange alternative solutions. The residents received a “rebate” for the equivalent amount of Council Tax which they would be paying over the six weeks, and had to work together as a community. During the period of the experiment
, refuse was no longer collected, street lighting was switched off and other services provided by the local authority were withdrawn. To make life more difficult the programme arranged for the street to be daubed with graffiti, for items to be fly tipped, for dogs to foul pavements and for actors to pose as anti-social teenagers who the neighbours were required to deal with. In addition some residents had to depend on the community as a whole for their benefits.
The programme attracted controversy several months before it was finally broadcast, with the dog fouling incident coming in for particular criticism. Dorothy Kelk, speaking on behalf of the Preston branch of Friends of the Earth, said the BBC had been “extremely irresponsible”, adding: “Dog excrement fouling a road is unhygienic and can cause illness in young children.” On the same issue, Ken Hudson, the Conservative leader of Preston City Council, said: “I think we have sufficient problems trying to regulate people to collect dog droppings without artificially manufacturing a programme which causes effluent on the streets.” But defending the scene, a BBC spokesman said: “The filming of the dog-walking scene demonstrates in exaggerated form one of the challenges residents would face if street-cleaning services were cut. The residents rose to the challenge and cleaned up the small amount of dog dirt extremely quickly.”
Conservative MP Stephen Hammond said: “This is an outrageous piece of scaremongering by the BBC and compromises their editorial integrity…We need a full and frank explanation from the organisation about how and why this is a good use of taxpayers’ cash…I shall be reporting them to Ofcom [the broadcasting watchdog] for what quite frankly is an unforgivable breach of editorial standards.”
The website Digital Spy reported that the first part of the programme, which was aired from 9-10pm had attracted 3.02million viewers (a 12.7% audience share), but that it had been beaten by ITV1’s documentary on Strangeways Prison which achieved viewing figures of 5
.25m (22.1%). The second episode of The Street That Cut Everything, shown after the BBC Ten O’Clock News attracted 3.02 million (by then a 21.1% share of the audience).
Reviews of the programme were generally unfavourable with critics citing its lack of credibility. John Crace of The Guardian wrote: “Government cuts as entertainment is both morally and factually iffy…In the end we didn’t actually learn that much about what councils can and cannot afford or whether they offer good value for money; only that they manage it better than a bunch of 50 amateurs trying to do it on their own. But we did learn why the big society is probably a doomed project.” Writing on their website, Chris Daniel, of the TaxPayers’ Alliance said: “Whilst the theatrical show made for sensationalist television the concept was completely flawed. It bore little relation to the actual challenge people would face.”
Writing in the Daily Telegraph, Catherine Gee called the programme “one of the most pointless political and social experiments of recent times”, observing: “In order to find out what happens when there’s no public services we need look no further than the local library or a history documentary. It’s squalor and chaos and that’s why public services were introduced in the first place. The issue of cuts to public services is indeed a serious one, but this sensationalist documentary was not an effective way to highlight it.”
A more positive review was given by Archie Bland, of The Independent who wrote: “It’s the first piece of popular television I’ve seen that grapples effectively with how such deep cuts will really play out.”
James E. Davis (April 3, 1962 – July 23, 2003) was a New York City police officer, corrections officer and council member. He was killed by a fellow politician in New York City Hall
, in a bizarre instance of political rivalry turned violent.
Davis was born and raised in Brooklyn, the son of a corrections officer and a registered nurse. He spent his early childhood in Bedford-Stuyvesant before his family moved to Crown Heights.
He earned a bachelor’s degree at Pace University in social science and youth agency administration. He became a corrections officer at Rikers Island after being beaten by two white police officers, and then became a police officer himself in 1991. In 1990, Davis had started an organization called “Love Yourself Stop the Violence” dedicated to stopping violence in urban America. The NYPD soon assigned Davis to its police academy as an instructor, and he became a frequent guest on local radio and television programs.
He eventually qualified as a minister and became a District Leader and then a council member for Brooklyn’s 35th Council district in November 2001
The template for his successful City Council bid had been established by previous races against Assemblyman and Democratic Kings County Chairman Clarence Norman Jr., who narrowly defeated him in 1998. The campaign against the politically powerful Norman — and Davis’ high profile generally — ruffled feathers within the NYPD, and Davis was fired for violating a rule that prohibits paid city employees from engaging in electoral politics. In that November’s election his name was on the ballot on the old Liberal Party of New York line
, for which Davis was fired from the NYPD. After pursuing litigation against the police department, Davis’ claim that he never formally accepted the Liberal Party nomination was upheld and he was allowed to reclaim his job. He was not, however, permitted to return to his former detail at the police academy, instead being assigned to a night shift at a Brooklyn precinct.
His next campaign was successful but would later be a factor in Davis’s murder. Othniel Askew had raised funds to run against him, but had failed to file the proper papers on time, which led to accusations of political chicanery and caused Askew to harbor a grudge against Davis.
On July 23, 2003, Davis brought Askew to attend a Council meeting at New York City’s City Hall, with the intention of honoring him by introducing him from the balcony. The councilman and Askew were able to bypass the metal detectors, a courtesy offered to elected officials and their guests. Once in the balcony, at 2:08 p.m., Askew fired a silver .40 caliber weapon at Davis, striking him several times in the torso. Davis, a retired police officer, was carrying a weapon but it remained holstered. A plainclothes policeman, Richard Burt, on duty as bodyguard to Gifford Miller, Speaker of the City Council, then fired up at Askew from the floor of the chamber
, striking him five times. Paramedics arrived quickly, and attempted to revive both Davis and Askew before taking them to Beekman Downtown Hospital. Both men died. Askew had a history of violence. It was discovered after the murder that Askew had asked Davis to sign papers naming him as Davis’ replacement in case anything happened to Davis.
Davis’s brother Geoffrey announced that he would run for the seat formerly held by his brother. He was defeated by fellow Democrat Letitia James, running on the Working Families Party line.
Davis was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery, but upon learning his killer’s ashes were also in Green-Wood his family had his body exhumed and reinterred in the Cemetery of the Evergreens.
The incident would be used as the basis for “City Hall”, an episode of Law & Order which aired on February 11, 2004, though in the adaptation, the dead councilman was an innocent bystander, with the second victim, a low-level bureaucrat who survived with a shoulder wound, as the true target.
Krisnan Nevada Inu (born 17 March 1987) is a New Zealand professional rugby league player for the Catalans Dragons in Super League. He has previously played for Stade Français of the Top 14 in rugby union and the Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Parramatta Eels and New Zealand Warriors in the National Rugby League. Inu was a member of the 2008 World Cup-winning New Zealand team
A Parramatta Eels junior, Inu made his first grade debut in the 2007 NRL season against the Canberra Raiders. After just one first grade match he was named to play for New Zealand in the ANZAC Day Test against Australia at Suncorp Stadium in Brisbane. The Kangaroos ran out easy 30-6 winners over the Kiwis. After the test, Inu was dropped back to Premier League but returned to first grade through a series of injuries to regular players. Inu took on the kicking duties as Parramatta’s primary kicker and full-back, Luke Burt, was injured mid-season. In Round 25 Inu scored three tries and kicked seven goals in Parramatta’s 46-point win over Brisbane
In August 2008, Inu was named in the New Zealand training squad for the 2008 Rugby League World Cup, and in October 2008, he was named in the final 24-man Kiwi squad.
After a 2-4 start to the 2009 season, the Eels decided to re-tool their line-up, dropping Inu to the New South Wales Cup, with Taulima Tautai replacing him for the Round 7 match against the Brisbane Broncos.
Inu’s up-and-down tenure at the Warriors was curtailed in May 2012 with his release and immediate signing with the Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs
Inu was released by the Warriors in May 2012 so he could immediately join the Des Hasler coached Bulldogs. He signed with the Bulldogs until the end of the 2015 season
Inu switched to rugby union at the end of the 2014 NRL season, signing with Stade Français.
Inu returned to rugby league and was signed by Catalans Dragons in June 2015 to add depth to a depleted squad
Poi tricks are defined by the manipulation and combination of several variables of the spinning activity. These variables typically include, but are not limited to, the following:
Often tricks require manual dexterity, coordination, and fine timing to accomplish. More skilled spinners may be able to combine or link these mechanics into more complex tricks.
Timing and Direction is a concept used by poi spinners to refer to how the props and hands move in relation to each other. There are currently four major categories of timing and direction that prop movements commonly fall into. These categories are:
Together Time, Same Direction (also referred to as Same Time and abbreviated TS ): Props are spinning in the same direction and in phase with each other so that a doubling effect occurs in the audience’s perception of the resulting trick.
Together Time, Opposite Direction (also referred to as Opposites and abbreviated TO): Props are spinning in opposite directions and in phase with each other so that the trick they produce appears to reflect across a vertical line of symmetry.
Split Time, Same Direction (also referred to as Split Time and abbreviated SS): Props are spinning in the same direction and 180 degrees out of phase with each other so that the trick they produce appears to reflect along a line of symmetry that rotates from the center of the trick.
Split Time, Opposite Direction (abbreviated SO): Props are spinning in opposite directions and 180 degrees out of phase with each other so that the trick they produce appears to reflect across a horizontal line of symmetry.
Planes in poi spinning refer to the plane that is created from the poi’s center of gravity to all points along the path of the poi head and are defined by the spinner’s orientation.
Parallel – also known as “spinning on tracks,” are vertical planes that are positioned on either side of the poi spinner. In these scenarios, the poi spinner’s heading and the poi’s planes are parallel
Wall-planes – are vertical planes that are positioned 90degrees from the poi-spinner’s heading. In this arrangement, the poi can be either in front of or behind the poi spinner.
Reels – refer to any number of wall-plane oriented tricks in which the planes move from in front to behind the poi-spinner in an alternating fashion.
Atomic – refers to any number of tricks in which the planes of either poi intersect the plane of the other. This term may be derived from the paths of the poi heads imitating the orbits of electrons around a nucleus of an atom.
Poi heads typically move in one of 4 directions in relation to the spinner.
Forward – refers to poi spinning in parallel planes where the head appears to move in the same direction that the spinner faces; the poi head moves away from the spinner.
Backward – refers to poi spinning in parallel planes where the head appears to move in the opposite direction that the spinner faces; the poi head moves toward the spinner.
Right-to-Left/Left-to-Right – in a wall-plane scenario, the poi move in either clockwise or counter-clockwise fashion in relation to the spinner. It is noted that RTL and LTR orientation is dependent on the spinner’s heading.
Butterfly – also known as “opposites,” refers to any number of tricks in which the poi move in opposite directions
. For example, while spinning in parallel, one poi head would be moving forward while the other in reverse. While in a wall plane, one head would be moving clockwise, the other counter-clockwise. Poi spinning in the same-time and same position are considered the traditional “butterfly” as when viewed from the front, the poi appear to meet at the top and bottom of the spin thus simulating the flapping of butterfly wings.
Moves such as stalls and wraps can change direction of one poi or both poi.
Stall – refers to a change in the center of gravity of the poi along a radius of the unit-circle thus allowing the poi head to travel in a tangential manner from the Unit Circle in such a way as to cause the poi to stop in its path. The intended effect is that the hand would stop the poi traveling on the unit-circle’s tangent and thus canceling its centripetal motion.
Wrap (recoil) – refers to a direction change caused the poi wrapping around something, typically a part of the body, in such a way that the poi-head bounces off of the target and the subsequent action results in the head spinning in an opposite direction.
Hand positioning defines an entire range of tricks in spinning poi in which the hands are placed in or move between different positions in relation to the spinner’s body, and are often defined by the Unit Circle and the spinner’s axes. In a traditional sense, the hand position is often synonymous with the poi’s center of gravity.
Unit Circle – is defined by the diameter of the circle made by spinning the poi with a fixed center of gravity.
Axes – refer to the lines that intersect the Unit Circle every 90 degrees; typically, the axes define horizontal and vertical movements of both the hands and the poi.
Isolation – or “isolated” refer to any number of tricks in which the hands follow the poi head thus changing the center of rotation from the end of the poi to the center of the string.
Extension – also known as “long-arm”, refers to a specific type of hybrid-timing where the poi-head and the spinner’s hand share the same directionality in a manner such that they form two concentric circles. This type of move involves the spinner’s arm being fully extended as the hand follows the unit circle.
Flowers – also known as “compound circles,” refers to any number of tricks where the poi heads rotate as the hands move along the unit circle thus creating smaller circles or “petals.”
Snake – refers to any number of tricks in which the poi heads adopt a sinusoidal path as a result of the hands moving along or across the axes.
Pendulum – refers to any number of tricks in which the poi head(s) move along or across the axes.
Continuous Assembly Patterns (CAPs) – refer to a family of tricks in which the spinners hands move in an arc (semi-circular) pattern such that the poi head movements create smaller, closed loop and/or elliptical path.
In-Spin – refers to any number of flower tricks in which the hands move in the same direction of the poi spinning direction.
Anti-Spin – refers to any number of flower tricks in which the hands move in the opposite direction of the poi spinning direction.
Behind-the-back(BTB) – refers to any number of spinning tricks or moves in which the planes are preserved while the spinner moves his or her hand(s) from one side of the body to the other by reaching around from behind
Crosser – also known as a “straight jacket,” refers to any number of spinning tricks or moves in which the planes are preserved while the spinner moves his or her hand(s) from one side of the body to the other by reaching around or across the front of their body in a bear-hug fashion.
Melt-down – refers to any number of tricks involving each hand moving from a crosser to a waist-wrap position in a continuously alternating fashion.
The buzzsaw refers to a class of tricks in which the poi planes are joined in such a way as they spin in a parallel fashion to the direct heading of the spinner. The path of the poi heads pass directly in front of the spinners’ body in either forward or reverse direction.
‘Tracing refers to a class of tricks in which the center of gravity of the poi move along the spinner’s body or appendages.
Weave – refers to any number of tricks that allow the spinner to keep the poi spinning in a continuous circular fashion while keeping the following:
Weaves are typically denoted by the number of “beats”—
Beat – a single rotation of the poi head. In terms of a weave, the number of rotations that the poi heads undergo before changing plane positions or making a full motion/position change cycle.
Fountain refers to a class of tricks in which the poi change direction of spin in relation to the orientation of spinner. The fountain motion usually involves the spinner physically turning or changing hand positions such that the spin direction is maintained, but the spin direction is opposite in relation to the spinner’s starting position.
Waist Wrap refers to a type of fountain, often performed in a wall plane fashion by which the spinner moves his or her hand from one side of the body to the other by either reaching around the front, spinning behind him or herself, or from behind the back
, spinning in front of him or herself.
Thru-wrap – refer to a class of tricks in which the poi wrap with a body part or with each other in such a manner as to not change the direction of spin. This type of move often involves the center of gravity of the poi changing from the end to the center of the poi in an isolated fashion.
Air-wrap – also known as a tangle, refers to a through-wrap in which the poi are wrapped with each other thus changing their respective centers of gravity to the point of intersection, typically for one rotation.
Hyperloop – is a type of air-wrap such that the poi are wrapped in such a way as their centers of gravity are changed to the point of intersection and the motion of the poi head perpetuates the rotation of the other.
Triquetra is shorthand for three-petaled antispin flowers and is so named for the trick’s resemblance to the Celtic symbol of the same name. It is frequently generalized to include any trick that includes the element of a three-petaled antispin flower.
Dodging Daggers – refers to a type of reel by which the center of the poi’s gravity passes between the spinner’s legs.
Windmill – refers to a type of reel by which the poi’s center of gravity passes above the spinner’s head.
Contact poi is a class of poi spinning where one or both poi head(s) are released from the hand and manipulated with other parts of the body. These moves are generally derived from other prop-based/manipulative activities such as staff or contact juggling. Contact poi are often constructed in such a manner as to provide the handle with additional weight that serves as a counterbalance for the poi-head.
A meteor is a poi-like manipulative whose ends, opposite the poi heads, are connected.
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