Civita è una frazione del comune di Bagnoregio, in provincia di Viterbo, nel Lazio, facente parte dei borghi più belli d’Italia, famosa per essere denominata “La città che muore”.
Abitata da una decina di persone e situata in posizione isolata, è raggiungibile solo attraverso un ponte pedonale in cemento armato costruito nel 1965. Il ponte può essere percorso soltanto a piedi, ma recentemente il comune di Bagnoregio, venendo incontro alle esigenze di chi vive o lavora in questo luogo, ha emesso una circolare in cui dichiara che, in determinati orari, residenti e persone autorizzate possono attraversare il ponte a bordo di cicli e motocicli. La causa del suo isolamento è la progressiva erosione della collina e della vallata circostante, che ha dato vita alle tipiche forme dei calanchi e che continua ancora oggi, rischiando di far scomparire la frazione, per questo chiamata anche “la città che muore” o, più raramente, “il paese che muore”.
La valle dei calanchi è situata tra il lago di Bolsena ad ovest e la valle del Tevere ad est, nel comune di Bagnoregio. È costituita da due valli principali: il Fossato del Rio Torbido e il Fossato del Rio Chiaro. In origine questi luoghi dovevano essere più dolci e accessibili ed erano attraversati da un’antica strada che collegava la valle del Tevere al Lago di Bolsena.
La morfologia di quest’area è stata provocata dall’erosione e dalle frane. Il territorio è costituito da due formazioni distinte per cronologia e tipo. Quella più antica è quella argillosa, di origine marina e costituisce lo strato di base, particolarmente soggetto all’erosione. Gli strati superiori sono invece formati da materiale tufaceo e lavico. La veloce erosione è dovuta all’opera dei torrenti, agli agenti atmosferici, ma anche al disboscamento.
La superficie del territorio di Civita di Bagnoregio non è molto estesa, ma abbastanza eterogenea. La vegetazione dei calanchi, a causa della loro natura argillosa, è limitata a poche specie, disposte in piccoli e radi gruppi. Anche in primavera, quando la flora è al massimo rigoglio, il terreno rimane per buona parte scoperto. Nella fascia più bassa dei calanchi si trova una zona cespugliosa, costituita da rovi, canne, ginestre, qualche arbusto di olmo e
, talvolta, rosa canina. All’interno della valle la vegetazione è costituita da piante arboree, da arbusti e da erbe palustri. La vegetazione delle rupi tufacee dello sperone roccioso sul quale si erge Civita, risulta limitata a poche specie con copertura esigua.
La fauna di questa zona è quella tipica delle aree collinari dell’Alto Lazio. Negli ambienti boschivi, costituiti soprattutto da macchie di bosco ceduo, tra le principali specie di mammiferi risultano il riccio tra gli insettivori, l’istrice tra i roditori, la volpe, la donnola Karen Millen Outlet, il tasso, la faina e il cinghiale tra i carnivori. Inoltre presenti la tortora e l’upupa, entrambi estivi. Da segnalare la gremita comunità felina che vive all’interno delle mura della città. Non si tratta di gatti selvatici, ma di gatti domestici randagi, la cui presenza va certamente collegata all’ambiente antropico abbandonato.
Civita venne fondata 2500 anni fa dagli Etruschi. Sorge su una delle più antiche vie d’Italia, congiungente il Tevere (allora grande via di navigazione dell’Italia Centrale) e il lago di Bolsena.
All’antico abitato di Civita si accedeva mediante cinque porte, mentre oggi la porta detta di Santa Maria o della Cava, costituisce l’unico accesso al paese. La struttura urbanistica dell’intero abitato è di origine etrusca, costituita da cardi e decumani secondo l’uso etrusco e poi romano, mentre l’intero rivestimento architettonico risulta medioevale e rinascimentale. Numerose sono le testimonianze della fase etrusca di Civita, specialmente nella zona detta di San Francesco vecchio; infatti nella rupe sottostante il belvedere di San Francesco vecchio è stata ritrovata una piccola necropoli etrusca. Anche la grotta di San Bonaventura, nella quale si dice che San Francesco risanò il piccolo Giovanni Fidanza, che divenne poi San Bonaventura, è in realtà una tomba a camera etrusca. Gli etruschi fecero di Civita (di cui non conosciamo l’antico nome) una fiorente città, favorita dalla posizione strategica per il commercio, grazie alla vicinanza con le più importanti vie di comunicazione del tempo.
Del periodo etrusco rimangono molte testimonianze: di particolare suggestione è il cosiddetto “Bucaione”, un profondo tunnel che incide la parte più bassa dell’abitato, e che permette l’accesso, direttamente dal paese, alla Valle dei Calanchi. In passato erano inoltre visibili molte tombe a camera, scavate alla base della rupe di Civita e delle altre pareti di tufo limitrofe che purtroppo furono in gran parte fagocitate, nei secoli, dalle innumerevoli frane. Del resto, già gli stessi Etruschi dovettero far fronte ai problemi di sismicità e di instabilità dell’area, che nel 280 a.C. si concretarono in scosse telluriche e smottamenti. All’arrivo dei romani, nel 265 a.C., furono riprese le imponenti opere di canalizzazione delle acque piovane e di contenimento dei torrenti avviate dagli etruschi.
Come detto sopra, il problema dell’erosione era già all’epoca degli Etruschi molto importante. Quindi misero in atto alcune opere che avevano il preciso scopo di proteggere Civita dai terremoti e dagli smottamenti, arginando fiumi e costruendo canali di scolo per il corretto deflusso delle acque piovane. I romani ripresero le opere dei loro predecessori, ma dopo di loro queste furono trascurate ed il territorio ebbe un rapido degrado che portò, infine, all’abbandono della Civita.
All’interno del borgo rimangono varie case medievali, la chiesa di San Donato, che si affaccia sulla piazza principale e dove al suo interno è custodito il S.S. Crocefisso ligneo, il Palazzo Vescovile, un mulino del XVI secolo, la casa natale di San Bonaventura e la porta di Santa Maria, con due leoni che tengono tra le zampe una testa umana, a ricordo di una rivolta popolare degli abitanti di Civita contro la famiglia orvietana dei Monaldeschi.
Nel 2005 i calanchi di Civita di Bagnoregio sono stati proposti come sito di interesse comunitario.
Il giorno del venerdì santo avviene il più sentito appuntamento della cittadina di Civita, quando all’interno della Chiesa di San Donato, durante una commovente cerimonia, viene deposto il S.S. Crocifisso il quale viene adagiato su una bara per trasportarlo all’interno della secolare Processione del Venerdì Santo di Bagnoregio. La leggenda vuole che durante un’epidemia di peste che nel 1499 riguardò tutto il territorio intorno a Bagnoregio, il Crocifisso abbia parlato ad una Pia donna, la quale si recava ogni giorno al cospetto della venerata Immagine chiedendo con le sue preghiere che avesse fine lo strazio. Un giorno, mentre la donna pregava “il Cristo”, udì una voce, che la rassicurava e la avvertiva che il Signore aveva esaudito le sue preghiere e che la pestilenza avrebbe a breve avuto fine, come puntualmente avvenne dopo qualche giorno contemporaneamente alla morte della Pia donna.
Il vecchio paese è iscritto all’associazione de I borghi più belli d’Italia. Per la sua posizione geografica suggestiva e il suo impianto medievale è ogni anno meta di numerosi turisti ed è stata diverse volte utilizzata come set cinematografico.
Da giugno 2013 l’accesso al Borgo di Civita di Bagnoregio costa €1,50.
School of Technical Drawing of Baron Alexander von Stieglitz
State Stalin Prize
Alexei Fedorovich Pakhomov (2 October 1900 [O.S. 19 September 1900] – 14 April 1973) was a Russian avant garde painter. He is widely renowned as a master of lithography. Early in his career, he was a successful illustrator for children’s books. His work during World War II earned him the State Stalin Prize. He later became a professor of art and was named a People’s Artist of the USSR.
Pakhomov was born into a peasant family in a small village. For years, Pakhomov’s father was elected as village head, so the child Alexei had access to paper. He began to draw himself a lot. People came to see his drawing, and soon the local landlord, Zubov, came to see him and invited him to come and visit. During those visits Zubov gave the boy drawing paper and crayons and showed him pictures of Surikov and Repin. When the boy finished primary education at the village school, Zubov arranged for Alexei to go to high school in Kadnikov.
In 1915, Zubov’s father, former actor and art-lover Yu. Zubov, collected money for Pakhomov to study in Petrograd at Stiglitz Art School, where his teachers were N. Shukhaev, Sergey Chekhonin, Mstislav Dobuzhinsky and Alexander Savinov. He remained there until 1917. From 1921, the young artist studied at the Vkhutemas under V. Lebedev, N. Tyrsa and A. Karev.
Due to the October Revolution and the Russian civil war, Pakhomov’s studies were drawn out until 1925, when he graduated the Vkhutemas and quickly acquired the reputation of being a mature artist. In 1921-1923[clarification needed] he joined the Circle of Artists movement.
Though Pakhomov made a number of colorful, monumental easel paintings, he was first and foremost a graphic artist, renowned for his huge contribution to the illustration of children’s books. The warm glow of his idyllic childhood years found its way into images of peasant children, a simple life he depicted with masterful ease. In the 1920s he made trips to Young Pioneer summer camps, to study children and their special plasticity and expression in natural surroundings. Soviet illustrators had virtually revolutionized the approach to children’s book illustration. The images of old were replaced with dynamic, colorful and emotional pictures which lived in the text instead of accompanying it. At the same time fonts and covers were also considered and designed.
Pakhomov co-founded the Artists’ Society in 1926. He participated in all of the Society’s exhibitions until 1931. Pakhomov’s work reached Japan in 1927
, when his work were put up at an exhibition of Soviet art in Osaka. Shortly after that he began working with the magazines Chizh and Ezh. He also made illustrations for E. L. Schwartz’s, S. Marshak’s and G. Krutov’s children’s books.
In the first half of the 1930s Pakhomov found himself in a difficult situation in view of the narrowing official view of art and the Soviet campaign against “formalism”. His paintings, where half-nude, young men and women are tanning in the sun are so unlike the acceptable, correct, powerful Social Realism, were made the object of severe criticism. The artist had to choose whether to give up his professional principles or some parts of his art altogether. He chose the latter, concentrating on graphic work and limiting himself even more by almost completely giving up color in his illustrations.
When Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union during Operation Barbarossa, there a was a need for propaganda placards and posters calling citizens to aid the war effort. Pakhomov hurried to Leningrad to do what he could to help. In July 1941, he helped dig anti-tank moats at Moloskovitza station. During the next three years Pakhomov remained in the besieged Leningrad. Between 1942 and 1944 he produced the a series of lithographs, Leningrad in the Days of the Blockade, in which he strove to bring forward and the very real emotion of the siege of Leningrad; the uniqueness of this particular setting of place and time; the human suffering and strong spirit. The series earned him the State Stalin Prize in 1946. During the siege, his workshop was hit by a bomb which came through the roof, smashed through the floor and blew up two floors below. It destroyed a lot of his works.
The Russian Institute of Blood Transfusions asked him to cooperate, and there he met Vladimir Konashevich, V. Dvorakovsky and Dmitry Mitrokhin. He received a poster-making order from V. Serov, who was chairman of the Leningrad Union of Artists at the time.
Between 1944 and 1947, Pakhomov worked on the series In our City, in which the artist strove to reflect the grand scale of the postwar effort to rebuild ruined Leningrad and to reinstate its formerly vibrant life. The presence of female workers in every traditionally male trade is a reminder of the recent war, which killed millions of Russians. In 1948, he began teaching at the Il’ya Repin Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture; he became a professor the following year.
In the final period of his work, in the 1950s-1960s, Pakhomov tried to revive his work after it became a bit too dry, perhaps too influenced by the strongly dogmatic requirements of post-war Russia. In the 1960s he even returned to the use of color, but his work during this period did not gain much critical acclaim.
Pakhomov died 14 April 1973.
Garry Shead is an Australian artist and filmmaker who won the Archibald Prize in 1992/93 with a portrait of Tom Thompson, and won the Dobell Prize in 2004 with Colloquy with John Keats.
He won the Young Contemporaries Prize in 1967 and travelled to Japan, Papua New Guinea, France, Vienna and Budapest. He returned to Australia in the 1980s. His paintings are in many galleries in Australia and overseas.
Born in Sydney, New South Wales, he studied at the National Art School in the 1960s. He was a founding member of the Ubu Films collective in the late 1960s, with whom he made numerous experimental film works, and he also worked for the ABC as an editor, cartoonist, filmmaker and scenic painter before his first major solo exhibition with Watters Gallery in Sydney. He was a friend of Brett Whiteley and participated in the famous Yellow House activities. He has shown in more than seventy group exhibitions and had over fifty solo exhibitions, as well as illustrating numerous books. He won the Archibald Prize in 1993 with a portrait of Tom Thompson. He also painted a portrait of Brett Whiteley’s ex-wife Wendy Whiteley for the Archibald Prize, but that entry did not win. He was a finalist in the Archibald Prize in 2009 and 2012.
He spent six months in Paris in 1973. In the 1980s he spent time in France, Spain, Italy and Holland.
During a residency at the Karolyi Foundation, in Vence in southern France he met Hungarian sculptor Judith Englert, and spent a year in Budapest with her before returning to Australia. They eventually settled in the seaside suburb of Bundeena, south of Sydney, in 1987. During the late 1980s his style (figurative, allegoric, lyric, moody) crystallized with the Bundeena paintings, the Queen series and the D. H. Lawrence series Karen Millen Outlet UK. This last is based on Lawrence’s novel Kangaroo, which was inspired by Lawrence’s stay at Thirroul
, near Wollongong. Shead became interested in Lawrence after he came across letters by the author on an expedition to the Sepik Highlands in Papua New Guinea in 1968. The 21st century saw him branch out into a complex set of paintings celebrating the Ern Malley series of hoax poems. Shead is represented in the National Gallery of Australia and all state galleries, many regional galleries and numerous private and corporate collections, both nationally and internationally.
Richie Barnett (born 21 April 1972 in Auckland, New Zealand) is a former professional rugby league footballer of the 1990s and 2000s. A New Zealand national representative fullback, he also captained the side during his career, during which he played for clubs in New Zealand
, Australia and England. Following his playing career he became a columnist for The New Zealand Herald.he also played two seasons for hull fc.
While playing in New Zealand Barnett was selected to play in the 1992 Pacific Cup for the New Zealand Māori side. He joined Sydney club, Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks in 1994. The following year Barnett was selected to represent New Zealand at the 1995 World Cup. He was selected for New Zealand in the 1996 Super League World Nines tournament. He was selected to play at fullback for the Kiwis in the 1997 ANZAC Test. He also played in the 1997 Super League World Nines.
Barnett left the Sharks for cross-town rivals, the Sydney Roosters for the 1998 season. That year he was selected to go on the 1998 New Zealand rugby league tour of Great Britain and played at fullback in all three Tests, scoring two tries. The following year he was selected for the New Zealand team to compete in the end of season 1999 Rugby League Tri-Nations tournament. In the final against Australia he captained the Kiwis at fullback in their 22-20 loss. Barnett’s 2000 season was cut short by a facial fracture he suffered during the 2000 ANZAC Test. He recovered in time to be selected to captain New Zealand from fullback at the 2000 World Cup. Barnett was succeeded as captain of New Zealand by Nathan Cayless.
After his NRL career ended, he played for London Broncos in the Super League until 2002.
He currently works as a broadcaster for SKY Network Television.
In the early 21st Century, Barnett developed ME/CFS and has said that the condition was the reason for his retirement. In July 2015, he described himself as 80% recovered. In 2000, he sustained a facial injury during a match and had to have surgery that involved having 10 plates inserted into his skull. He has stated that he would rather go through that surgery again, than live with ME/CFS once more. He is the face of the Associated New Zealand ME Society (ANZMES).
Sandra Pianalto (* 4. August 1954 in Valli del Pasubio, Provinz Vicenza) ist eine aus Italien stammende US-amerikanische Wirtschaftswissenschaftlerin und Bankerin. Von 2003 bis zum 31. Mai 2014 war sie Präsidentin und Chief Executive Officer (CEO) der Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
Die aus Italien stammende Sandra Pianalto absolvierte nach dem Schulbesuch ein grundständiges Studium der Wirtschaftswissenschaften an der University of Akron bogner taschen sale, das sie 1976 mit einem Bachelor of Arts in Economics (B.A. Economics) beendete. Ein weiteres postgraduales Studium der Wirtschaftswissenschaften an der George Washington University schloss sie mit einem Master of Arts in Economics (M.A. Economics) ab.
Nach einer anschließenden Tätigkeit im Stab des Haushaltsausschusses des US-Repräsentantenhauses begann Sandra Pianalto 1983 ihre Tätigkeit für die Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland als Forschungswirtschaftswissenschaftlerin. Bereits 1984 wurde sie assistierende Vizepräsidentin für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit sowie 1988 Vizepräsidentin, ehe sie zwischen 1993 und 2003 als Erste Vizepräsidentin und Chief Operating Officer (COO) der Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland fungierte.
Am 1. Februar 2003 wurde Sandra Pianalto Nachfolgerin von Jerry L. Jordan als Präsidentin und Chief Executive Officer (CEO) der Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, der für die Bundesstaaten Ohio und Pennsylvania zuständigen Regionalbank des Federal Reserve System mit Sitz in Cleveland bogner daunen jacke damen. Für das Jahr 2014 ist sie stimmberechtigtes Mitglied des Offenmarktausschusses (Federal Open Market Committee), der die Geld- und Währungspolitik der Vereinigten Staaten betreibt
Neben dieser Tätigkeit engagiert sie sich in zahlreichen Institutionen und Organisationen wie zum Beispiel als Vorstandsmitglied der Greater Cleveland Partnership, des Northeast Ohio Council on Higher Education sowie von United Way Cleveland. Ferner ist sie Trustee der Cleveland Foundation, der Rock and Roll Hall of Fame & Museum sowie des University Hospitals Health System.
Im Februar 2014 verteidigte sie die Anwendung von Anlagenkäufen und die sogenannte Vorwärtsführung (Forward Guidance) der Zinssätze durch die Federal Reserve Bank als effektive Werkzeuge, die dazu beitrugen, die US-amerikanische Wirtschaft aus der Rezession zu helfen.
Für Frühjahr 2014 kündigte Sandra Pianalto ihren Rücktritt als Präsidentin und Chief Executive Officer (CEO) der Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland an. Am 13. Februar 2014 wurde bekanntgegeben, dass Loretta Mester, bisherige Exekutivvizepräsidentin und Direktorin der Forschungsabteilung der Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, zum 1. Juni 2014 ihre Nachfolgerin werden soll.
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Jean-Pierre Arbon, dit Arbon est un auteur-compositeur-interprète et un homme d’entreprise français.
Né à Paris en 1953, il est diplômé d’HEC (promotion 1974)
Ancien Directeur Général de Flammarion, il est l’un des premiers en France à entrevoir les bouleversements que la révolution numérique va entraîner dans les secteurs de la transmission du savoir et de la connaissance. Il fonde en 1997 avec Bruno de Sa Moreira la première maison d’édition en ligne au monde, 00h00.com, qui sera rachetée en 2000 par Gemstar TV Guide (groupe News Corp).
En 2003, il décide de changer de vie, et de se consacrer entièrement à sa passion de toujours : la chanson. Connu comme artiste sous le nom d’« Arbon », il publie un premier album, Être et avoir été (P&PP, 2005), en 2005, suivi de Il pleut au Paradis (Booster/PIAS) en 2007 pour lequel il obtient le Coup de Cœur de l’Académie Charles-Cros.
En 2010, il sort son troisième album Ça arrive à tout le monde (Booster/PIAS), et mène des tournées de concerts à Paris et en province, formant dans le même temps un ensemble orchestral avec Scott Bricklin à la guitare basse, Pascal Simoni aux claviers et Patrick Gorces aux percussions, mixés par son fils, Augustin Oji Arbon. Un quatrième album sort alors en 2014, le Cap & la boussole.
Paul’s Bridge is a stone bridge carrying the Neponset Valley Parkway over the Neponset River between Milton and southern Boston, Massachusetts. It was built in 1849 by Thomas Hollis, Jr., of Milton, but was later reconstructed using the original materials. It replaced the earlier Hubbard’s Bridge (built prior to 1759), and a subsequent Paul’s Bridge (so named at its 1807 reconstruction). Its current span is approximately 88 feet (27 m). The name “Paul” can be attributed to Samuel Paul, the owner of the adjacent land on the Readville (now Boston) side, which was part of Dedham at the time of the bridge’s construction
The 1849 bridge was 81 feet (25 m) long and 22 feet (6
.7 m) wide, and was constructed of unmortared Quincy granite. Each round arch measures 20 feet (6.1 m) at the springline. The area between the arches is uncoursed rubblestone, and the arches are formed out of cut granite voussoirs. The bridge underwent a major rebuilding between 1932-1935 under the leadership of Arthur A. Shurcliff, FASLA and founder of the AIP, who made it a priority to widen the bridge. Most of the original stone was reused and solid stone parapets replaced the wooden siderails. Instead of a rubblestone finish between the arches on the extended side, it is finished in coursed stone.
Paul’s Bridge was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, and contributes to a historic district encompassing the Neponset River Parkway.
The Oklahoma Health Care Authority (OKHCA) is an agency of the government of Oklahoma responsible for providing health insurance benefits for the state’s SoonerCare (Oklahoma Medicaid) members. The Authority is the state-level counterpart to the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
The Authority is led by a Board of Directors, composed of seven members appointed by the Governor of Oklahoma, the President pro tempore of the Oklahoma Senate, and the Speaker of the Oklahoma House of Representatives. The Board in turn appoints the Administrator of the Authority, who serves as the chief executive officer of the Authority.
The Authority was created in 1993 during the term of Governor David Walters.
The Oklahoma Health Care Authority is led by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Under Governor of Oklahoma Mary Fallin, the Secretary of Health and Human Services is Dr. Terry Cline, Ph.D..
The Board of Directors is the governing body of OHCA, which directs the actions and oversees the operation of the Authority. The Board is composed of seven members, with three appointed by the Governor of Oklahoma, two appointed by the President pro tempore of the Oklahoma Senate, and two appointed by the Speaker of the Oklahoma House of Representatives. Board members serves a four-year term without compensation. In making the appointments, the considerations must be given to urban, rural, gender and minority representation.
As of 2014, the current members of the Board are:
The Oklahoma Health Care Authority has the primary duty of executing SoonerCare, the Oklahoma version of Medicaid. SoonerCare is a health coverage program jointly funded by the United States federal government and the Oklahoma state government. The program provides payments to cover medical services to economically challenged individuals. OHCA determines financial eligibility for the program.
SoonerCare is medical care delivered by OHCA as prescribed by the Social Security Act of 1965 (the Medicaid Act). The Federal Medicaid Act requires that certain medical services be delivered to recipients by hospitals and physicians. The State, however, is allowed to add other optional services, such as pharmacy services. With each of these programs, OHCA is responsible for setting compensation levels, services contained in each delivery system, contracts to deliver the services, and actuarial determinations regarding compensation. As of February 2012, those individuals covered by HCA comprise approximately 879,033 individuals across Oklahoma.
In order to be eligible to receive SoonerCare medical services from OHCA, an individual must meet any of the following requirements:
SoonerCare is a means tested program. State law provides that SoonerCare may cover individuals who have an annual income of equal to or less than 185% of the United States federal poverty level. OHCA contracts with Oklahoma Department of Human Services to determine eligibility for OHCA services. Additionally, OHCA actively works with the Office of the Oklahoma Attorney General’s Medicaid Fraud Unit to prosecute fraudulent providers.
In September 2010, OHCA implemented an online system that uses an “enroll-first, verify-later” approach that automatically renews benefits for existing SoonerCare beneficiaries and enrolls new applicants if the system determines that they are likely to meet eligibility requirements. The program has streamlined enrollment processes, saving an estimated $1.5 million in operating costs and reducing the rate of those uninsured.
Insure Oklahoma is an employer sponsored insurance plan administered by OHCA which provides employers with premium subsidies to help buy health insurance for low to moderate income employees. Insure Oklahoma also provides a way for individuals who participate in the Individual Plan to gain access to an affordable health care option.
In April 2004, Senate Bill 1546 authorized the Oklahoma Health Care Authority to develop a program assisting employees of small businesses, 19 to 64 years of age with either:
In November 2004, the Oklahoma Health Care Initiative created the funding mechanism to fund Insure Oklahoma. SQ 713, passed by a statewide vote, increased the sales tax on tobacco products. A portion of these revenues were designated to be used to fund the new health program.
The Authority is divided into four service branches: Soonercare Operations, Financial Services, Information Services, and Legal Services.
The Oklahoma Health Care Authority has an annual budget over $5 billion, making OHCA one of the largest state agencies. OHCA also employs over 400 full-time employees
Babbitt, first published in 1922, is a novel by Sinclair Lewis. Largely a satire of American culture, society, and behavior, it critiques the vacuity of middle-class American life and its pressure toward conformity. An immediate and controversial bestseller, Babbitt was influential in the decision to award Lewis the Nobel Prize in literature in 1930.
The word “Babbitt” entered the English language as a “person and especially a business or professional man who conforms unthinkingly to prevailing middle-class standards”.
If Lewis’s first widely acclaimed novel, Main Street, sought to shatter early-20th-century romanticizations of small-town America, his next work, Babbitt, turned a critical eye towards the celebrated midsize industrial city, home to the enterprising American businessman. After the social instability and sharp economic depression that emerged in the wake of World War I, many Americans in the 1920s saw business and city growth as foundations for stability. The civic boosters and self-made men of the middle-class represented particularly American depictions of success, at a time when the promotion of the American identity was crucial in the face of rising fears of communism. At the same time, growing Midwestern cities, usually associated with mass production and the emergence of a consumer society, were also celebrated emblems of American progress. George F. Babbitt, the novel’s main character, is described by the 1930 Nobel Prize committee as “the ideal of an American popular hero of the middle-class. The relativity of business morals as well as private rules of conduct is for him an accepted article of faith, and without hesitation he considers it God’s purpose that man should work, increase his income, and enjoy modern improvements.”
Although many other popular novelists writing at the time of Babbitt’s publication depict the “Roaring Twenties” as an era of social change and disillusionment with material culture, modern scholars argue that Lewis was not himself a member of the “lost generation” of younger writers like Hemingway or Fitzgerald. Instead, he was influenced by the Progressive Era; and changes in the American identity that accompanied the country’s rapid urbanization, technological growth, industrialization, and the closing of the frontier. Although the Progressive Era had built a protective barrier around the upstanding American businessman, as one literary scholar writes: “Lewis was fortunate enough to come on the scene just as the emperor’s clothes were disappearing.” Lewis has been compared to many authors, writing before and after the publication of Babbitt, who made similar criticisms of the middle class. Although published in 1899, long before Babbitt, Thorstein Veblen’s The Theory of the Leisure Class, which critiqued consumer culture and social competition at the turn of the 20th century, is an oft-cited point of comparison. Written decades later, in 1950, David Riesman’s The Lonely Crowd has also been compared to Lewis’s writings.
Zenith is a typical midsize Midwestern city. Lewis was very critical of the similarities between most American cities, especially when compared to the diverse—and by his lights, culturally richer—cities of Europe. Frowning on the interchangeable qualities of American cities, he wrote: “it would not be possible to write a novel which would in every line be equally true to Munich and Florence.” This is not true of Zenith, Babbitt’s literary home. Zenith is a fictitious city in the equally fictitious Midwestern state of “Winnemac,” adjacent to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan. (Babbitt does not mention Winnemac by name, but Lewis’s subsequent novel Arrowsmith elaborates on its location.) When Babbitt was published, newspapers in Cincinnati, Duluth, Kansas City, Milwaukee, and Minneapolis each claimed that their city was the model for Zenith. Cincinnati had perhaps the strongest claim, as Lewis had lived there while researching the book. Lewis’s own correspondence suggests, however, that Zenith is meant to be any Midwestern city with a population between about 200,000 and 300,000.
While conducting research for Babbitt, Lewis kept detailed journals, in which he drafted long biographies for each of his characters. For his title character this biography even included a detailed genealogy, as well as a list of Babbitt’s college courses. Zenith’s major names and families are well-documented in these journals, and many of them emerge again in Lewis’s later writings. Zenith’s layout is also imagined in careful detail. Lewis drew a series of 18 maps of Zenith and outlying areas, including Babbitt’s house, with all its furnishings.
As much as Babbitt is about the American businessman, it is also about American cities. Zenith’s chief virtue is conformity, and its religion is “boosterism.” (Prominent boosters in Zenith include Vergil Gunch, the coal dealer; Sidney Finkelstein, the ladies’ ready-to-wear buyer for Parcher & Stein’s department store; Professor Joseph K. Pumphrey, owner of the Riteway Business College and “instructor in Public Speaking, Business English, Scenario Writing
, and Commercial Law”; and T. Cholmondeley “Chum” Frink, a famous poet of dubious talent.) As a realtor, George Babbitt knew well the virtues of his home city. In a speech to the Zenith Real Estate Board, he states: “It may be true that New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia will continue to keep ahead of us in size. But aside from these three cities, which are notoriously so overgrown that no decent white man, nobody who loves his wife and kiddies and God’s good out-o’-doors and likes to shake the hand of his neighbor in greeting would want to live in them.” Zenith is thus presented as more than simply prosperous; it is safe and wholesome.
Lewis has been both criticized and congratulated for his unorthodox writing style in Babbitt. One reviewer said “There is no plot whatever… Babbitt simply grows two years older as the tale unfolds.” Lewis presents a chronological series of scenes in the life of his title character. After introducing George F. Babbitt as a middle-aged man, “nimble in the calling of selling houses for more than people could afford to pay,” Lewis presents a meticulously detailed description of Babbitt’s morning routine. Each item Babbitt encounters is explained, from the high-tech alarm clock, which Babbitt sees as a marker of social status, to the rough camp blanket, a symbol of the freedom and heroism of the West. As he dresses for the day, Babbitt contemplates each article of his “Solid Citizen” uniform, the most important being his Booster’s club button, which he wears with pride. The first seven chapters follow Babbitt’s life over the course of a single day. Over breakfast Babbitt dotes on his ten-year-old daughter Tinka, tries to dissuade his 22-year-old daughter Verona from her newfound socialist leanings, and encourages his 17-year-old son Ted to try harder in school. At the office he dictates letters and discusses real estate advertising with his employees.
Babbitt is professionally successful as a realtor. Much of his energy in early chapters is spent on climbing the social ladder through booster functions, real estate sales, and making good with various dignitaries. According to Babbitt, any “decent” man in Zenith belonged to at least two or three “lodges” or booster clubs. They were good for potential business partnerships, getting time away from home and family life, and quite simply because “it was the thing to do.” Babbitt admits that these clubs “stimulated him like brandy” and that he often finds work dull and nerve-wracking in comparison. Lewis also paints vivid scenes of Babbitt bartering for liquor (despite being a supporter of Prohibition) and hosting dinner parties. At his college class reunion, Babbitt reconnects with a former classmate, Charles McKelvey, whose success in the construction business has made him a millionaire. Seizing the opportunity to hobnob with someone from a wealthier class, Babbitt invites the McKelveys to a dinner party. Although Babbitt hopes the party will help his family rise socially, the McKelveys leave early and do not extend a dinner invitation in return.
Gradually, Babbitt realizes his dissatisfaction with “The American Dream,” and attempts to quell these feelings by going camping in Maine with his close friend and old college roommate Paul Reisling. When Babbitt and Paul arrive at the camp they marvel at the beauty and simplicity of nature. Looking out over a lake Babbitt comments: “I’d just like to sit here – the rest of my life – and whittle – and sit. And never hear a typewriter.” Paul is similarly entranced, stating: “Oh it’s darn good, Georgie. There’s something eternal about it.” Although the trip has its ups and downs, the two men consider it an overall success, and leave feeling optimistic about the year ahead.
On the day that Babbitt gets elected vice-president of the Booster’s club, he finds out that Paul shot his wife Zilla. Babbitt immediately drives to the jail where Paul is being held. Babbitt is very shaken up by the situation, trying to think of ways to help Paul out. When Paul is sentenced to a three-year jail term, “Babbitt returned to his office to realize that he faced a world which, without Paul, was meaningless.” Shortly after Paul’s arrest, Myra (Babbitt’s wife) and Tinka go to visit relatives, leaving Babbitt more or less on his own. Alone with his thoughts, Babbitt begins to ask himself what it was he really wanted in life. Eventually, “he stumbled upon the admission that he wanted the fairy girl – in the flesh.” Missing Paul, Babbitt decides to return to Maine. He imagines himself a rugged outdoorsman, and thinks about what it would be like to become a camp guide himself. Ultimately, however, he is disenchanted with the wilderness and leaves “lonelier than he had ever been in his life.”
Eventually Babbitt finds the cure for his loneliness in an attractive new client, Tanis Judique. He opens up to her about everything that happened with Paul and Zilla, and Tanis proves to be a sympathetic listener. In time, Babbitt begins to rebel against all of the standards he formerly held: he jumps into liberal politics with famous socialist/’single tax’ litigator Seneca Doane; conducts an extramarital affair with Tanis; goes on various vacations; and cavorts around Zenith with would-be Bohemians and flappers. But each effort ends up disillusioning him to the concept of rebellion. On his excursions with Tanis and her group of friends, “the Bunch,” he learns that even the Bohemians have rigid standards for their subculture. When Virgil Gunch and others discover Babbitt’s activities with Seneca Doane and Tanis Judique, Virgil tries to convince Babbitt to return to conformity and join their newly founded “Good Citizens’ League.” Babbitt refuses. His former friends then ostracize him, boycotting Babbitt’s real estate ventures and shunning him publicly in clubs around town.
Babbitt slowly becomes aware that his forays into nonconformity are not only futile but also destructive of the life and the friends he once loved. Yet he continues with them – even after Myra suspects Babbitt’s affair, though she has no proof or specific knowledge. Unrelated to these events, Myra falls seriously ill with acute appendicitis. Babbitt, in a near-epiphany, rushes home and relinquishes all rebellion in order to care for his wife. During her long recovery, they spend a lot of time together, rekindling their intimacy. In short time, his old friends and colleagues welcome Babbitt back into the fold. The consequence of his disgruntled philosophical wanderings being met with practical events of life, he reverts into dispassionate conformity by the end; however, Babbitt never quite loses hold of the sentimentality, empathy, and hope for a meaningful life that he had developed. In the final scene, all has been righted in his life and he is back on a traditional track. He is awakened in the night to find that his son Ted and Eunice, the daughter of his neighbor, have not returned from a party. In the morning his wife informs him that the two have been discovered in the house, having been married that night. While an assemblage of friends and family gather to denounce this development, Babbitt excuses himself and Ted to be alone. He offers his approval of the marriage stating that though he does not agree he admires the fact that Ted has chosen to lead his life by his own terms and not that of conformity.
Although Lewis sought to portray the middle-aged American in Babbitt, he includes tidbits of his character’s youthful dreams and ideals. Babbitt often reflects on his failed goal of becoming a lawyer. In college he dreamed of defending the poor against the “Unjust Rich,” and possibly even running for governor. He began practicing real estate in college to earn money for living expenses, but settled into real estate permanently shortly after marriage. Babbitt’s best friend, Paul, is similarly haunted by unfulfilled dreams. A talented violinist, he had hoped when younger to study in Europe. When he and Babbitt leave for their trip to Maine, they stop off in New York, where Paul looks longingly at ocean liners set to cross the Atlantic. Paul still plays the violin on occasion; when he does “even Zilla was silent as the lonely man who lost his way … spun out his dark soul in music.” Despite having abandoned his former goals and ideals, Babbitt still dreams of a “fairy child”: an imaginary woman full of life and gaiety who sees him not as a stodgy old businessman but as a “gallant youth.” He imagines various women as his fairy child, including his secretary, a manicurist, his son’s girlfriend, and finally Tanis Judique.
Having failed in his aspirations to become a lawyer himself, Babbitt hopes his son, Ted, will go to law school. Ted, however, is hardly interested in finishing high school. Rather than focusing on college, Ted clips advertisements for correspondence courses and money-making schemes. In the novel’s dramatic final scene Ted announces that he has eloped with his girlfriend, Eunice Littlefield, and intends to forgo college to become an engineer. Eunice is described as “movie crazy” and very modern in appearance, wearing her hair in a short bob and skirts that show off her knees.
Babbitt’s hopes for his elder daughter, Verona, consist mostly of her making a good marriage. Babbitt is concerned about her socialist-leaning political views. The books she reads, including poetry by Vachel Lindsay and essays by H. L. Mencken, particularly disturb him as threatening to the virtues of solid citizenship. Babbitt’s younger daughter, Tinka, only ten at the start of the book, is doted upon and admired.
In writing Babbitt, Lewis had very clear goals. He wanted to create not a caricature but a living and breathing individual with recognizable hopes and dreams. In a letter to his publisher, Lewis wrote: “He is all of us Americans at 46, prosperous but worried, wanting – passionately – to seize something more than motor cars and a house before it’s too late.” Babbitt’s mediocrity is central to Lewis’s hopes of creating a realistic character. He believed the fatal flaw of other authors’ attempts to capture the American businessman was that they always made him out to be exceptional. In early descriptions of Babbitt, Lewis mused: “This is the story of the ruler of America.” As he saw it, the “Tired American Businessman” wielded power not through his exceptionality, but through militant normalcy. But Lewis also strove to portray the American businessman as deeply dissatisfied and privately aware of his shortcomings. He was “the most grievous victim of his own militant dullness” and secretly longed for freedom and romance. Readers praising Lewis for his “realism” eagerly admitted the regularity with which they encountered Babbitts in their daily lives, but could also relate to some of Babbitt’s anxieties about conformity and personal fulfillment.
In its first year alone, Babbitt sold 140,997 copies in the United States. Published only two years after Lewis’s previous bestselling novel, Main Street, the book was highly anticipated, and comparisons between the two were not uncommon. As one reviewer put it, both novels presented a portrait in which “the principal character is brought into conflict with the accepted order of things sufficiently to illustrate its ruthlessness.” Like Main Street, the portrait of American life that Babbitt presented was controversial and had its share of admirers and critics.
Social critic and fellow satirist H. L. Mencken was among Lewis’s most ardent supporters. Calling himself “an old professor of Babbittry,” Mencken declared the novel a stunning work of realism. To Mencken, George F. Babbitt was more than a character; he was an archetype, representing swarms of American city dwellers who touted the virtues of Republicanism, Presbyterianism, and absolute conformity. He wrote, “It is not what he [Babbitt] feels and aspires that moves him primarily; it is what the folks about him will think of him. His politics is communal politics, mob politics, herd politics; his religion is a public rite wholly without subjective significance.” Babbitt, he believed, was the literary embodiment of everything wrong with American society. Followers of Mencken, along with like-minded critics, were sometimes called “Babbitt-baiters.”
While Mencken praised Babbitt as unflinching satire, others argued that Lewis took his depiction of the American businessman too far. One reviewer, comparing Babbitt to the writing of such more “graceful” satirists as Dickens and Twain, argued that Lewis’s “gift is almost entirely for making people nasty” and that his characters therefore wind up unbelievable. Another reviewer, agreeing that Lewis was no Twain, calls Babbitt “a monstrous, bawling, unconscionable satire,” and writes “Mr. Lewis is the most phenomenally skillful exaggerator in literature today.” Although many critics agreed that there was some truth in the depiction of America Lewis put forth, they could not agree that it existed to the extent portrayed in Babbitt.
In the mid-1920s, after spending several years as the subjects of “Babbitt-baiting,” American businessmen, Rotary members, and the like began defending the country’s so-called “Babbitts.” Taking to the radio waves, and publishing in major magazines, they highlighted the virtues of community organization and the positive contributions industrial cities made to society. Some even traced positive examples of Babbitt types throughout American and world history.
Babbitt continued to be used as a negative archetype throughout the 20th century. The Oxford English Dictionary defines Babbittry as “behaviour and attitudes characteristic of or associated with the character George F. Babbitt; esp. materialistic complacency and unthinking conformity.”
Babbitt has been converted into films twice, a feat Turner Classic Movies describes as “impressive for a novel that barely has a plot.” The first adaptation was a silent film released in 1924 and starring Willard Louis as George F. Babbitt. Better known is the 1934 talkie starring Guy Kibbee. That version, while remaining somewhat true to Lewis’s novel, takes liberties with the plot, exaggerating Babbitt’s affair and a sour real estate deal. Both films were Warner Bros. productions.
Coordinates: 50°51′33″N 0°42′46″W / 50.85928°N 0.71266°W / 50.85928; -0.71266
Boxgrove is a village and civil parish in the Chichester District of the English county of West Sussex, about five kilometres (3.5 miles) north east of the city of Chichester. The village is just south of the A285 road which follows the line of the Roman road Stane Street.
The parish has an area of 1,169 hectares (2,890 acres). According to the 2001 census it had a population of 901 people living in 423 households of whom 397 were economically active. Included in the parish are the hamlets of Strettington and Halnaker.
An electoral ward in the same name exists. This ward stretches North West to West Dean with a total population taken at the 2011 census of 2,235.
Boxgrove is best known for the Lower Palaeolithic archaeological site discovered in a gravel quarry known as Amey’s Eartham Pit located near the village but in Eartham Parish. Parts of the site complex were excavated between 1983 and 1996 by a team led by Mark Roberts of University College London. Numerous Acheulean flint tools and remains of animals (some butchered) dating to around 500,000 years ago were found at the site. The area was therefore used by some of the earliest occupants of the British Isles. Remains of Homo heidelbergensis were found on the site in 1994, the only postcranial hominid bone to have been found in Northern Europe. Teeth from another individual were found two years later.
A Benedictine monastery was founded at Boxgrove by William de la Haye in 1115. The priory church remains as the Church of England parish church of St. Mary and St. Blaise, minus the original nave, and mostly dates from the 13th century le coq sportif outlet.
Media related to Boxgrove at Wikimedia Commons
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